Workshop Format// Formats des Ateliers

Paper in a panel / paper dans un panneau

DOI

https://doi.org/10.7275/rcfy-2149

Organizer/Presenter/author Information // Informations sur l'organisateur / le présentateur / auteurs

Cecilia Calderón-Puente Dr., ICOMOS/MEXICO / CIICFollow
Zazanda Salcedo Gutierrez MsC, ICOMOS/BOLIVIAFollow

Biographical Information // Informations biographiques

Prof. Dr. Cecilia Calderón-Puente (ICOMOS/MEXICO), is President of the International Scientific Committee of Cultural Itineraries (CIIC) of ICOMOS. She holds a Ph.D. in Architecture with over thirty years of experience. In 1985 she founded and is currently General Director of Cali Consultores, advisory and construction industry for the public, private and social sectors in matters relating to new work, as well as diagnostics and projects for the conservation of cultural and urban heritage. As part of her activity in research, she has contributed with relevant information to El Camino Real Intercontinental. Evaluator of World Heritage, she has issued several publications and has given lectures in Mexico, America, Europe, Africa, and Asia, and also investigates territorial issues for the Autonomous University of Chihuahua in Mexico.

Zazanda Salcedo Gutierrez is an architect at the Universidad Mayor de San Andrés (UMSA) of La Paz, Bolivia. With a Master's Degree in Higher Education from the Psychopedagogical and Research Center for Higher Education (CEPIES-UMSA), Master's Degree in Architecture with specialization in Restoration of Monuments from the National School of Conservation, Restoration and Museography "Manuel del Castillo Negrete - National Institute of Anthropology and History (ENCRyM-INAH) Mexico, and currently a student of the PhD program in Rural Development Sciences in the Postgraduate Course in Development Sciences (CIDES - UMSA). Professor in the Architecture Career of the History of Architecture, as well as the Master in Conservation of the Cultural Heritage of the modules Management of Cultural Heritage and Cultural Heritage in Bolivia, Legislation, and Regulations; in the Faculty of Architecture, Arts, Design, and Urbanism (FAADU-UMSA). She has worked in public positions such as Head of Cultural Heritage of the Department of La Paz, UNESCO Coordinator in the Ministry of Cultures, Director of Cultures of the Department of La Paz; and in international cooperation as a Specialist Consultant of the Heritage for Development Program of AECID - Bolivia. International member of the International Scientific Committee of the Revista de Arquitectura HORIZONTES Oaxaca - Mexico; of the Forum UNESCO University and Heritage Network (FUUP), of the Network of Ibero-American Tourism Experts (REI - Tourism); of the Ibero-American Network PROTERRA; of the International Council of Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS); and the Bolivian National Committee (ICOMOS Bolivia).

Keywords

cultural landscapes, rural heritage, Bolivia, rural development, World Heritage

Abstract // Résumé

This panel incorporates two case studies of cultural landscapes and their management in Mexico and Bolivia. According to a new vision of government after the Mexican Revolution, it’s established in Mexico, in addition to the “ejidos”, a policy of production and settlement in rural areas, based on the generation of irrigation systems. Thus, from 1926 to 1940, “agricultural cities” are designed in the country, among which is founded, in the southern area of the northern state of Chihuahua, a city named Delicias, whose main objective was the production of vine and cotton. However, by 1960, there was a change in production trends, due to external factors, that was understood and dealt with by the inhabitants, which allowed them to maintain their production process and even increase considerably their activity. Due to this attitude toward hardship, they would call themselves the "victors of the desert". This paper will describe the founding process of this rural settlement, as well as the territory it occupies and its current status.

According to data from the Observatory of Archaeological Cultural Heritage-OPCA, 7% of the declarations of national heritage correspond to the natural category, 1% to declarations made to 'territories', and 23% of the cultural heritage is located or develops in rural contexts; however, at present no declaration of Cultural Landscape has been accomplished in Bolivia, considering that Law 530 of the Bolivian Cultural Patrimony, defines and incorporates this category in the classification of heritage.

On the other hand, at the moment of integrating the notion of cultural landscape in the processes of territorial management and administration, it is necessary to identify which are the factors that can condition these actions. In this sense, the present work will focus on the identification and description of the impact of agrarian reforms in Bolivia in the territorial reconfiguration, being one of the factors that determine the human-nature relationship, through the use of land. The study scenery is the Kallawaya region that administratively includes the municipalities of Curva and Charazani, it is important to mention that the worldview of this culture is recognized as Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity (2003), and in its territory archaeological, architectural elements are preserved and productive - linked to traditional medicine, agriculture and livestock - as part of their cultural heritage, they are integrated into the natural context of the region that is characterized by its geomorphology, climate, and articulation from the different ecosystems that are part of this territory.

Bibliographic References // Références Bibliographiques

ABOITES AGUILAR, Luis. 2018. El norte mexicano sin algodones, 1970-2010. Estancamiento, inconformidad y el violento adiós al optimismo. Centro de Estudios Históricos. El Colegio de México. México.

CALDERON PUENTE, Cecilia et al., 2019. Arquitectura Moderna, su expresión en el Chihuahua del siglo XX. Editores UACH. México.

VALENZUELA, Carlos. 2008. Tierra y Territorio en Bolivia. Centro de Documentación e Información CEDIB. La Paz.

VAN KESSEL, Juan. 1993. La Senda de los Kallawayas. El jote Errante. Chile.

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Panel 12. Paper 12.2: Public policies, cultural landscape and rural development

This panel incorporates two case studies of cultural landscapes and their management in Mexico and Bolivia. According to a new vision of government after the Mexican Revolution, it’s established in Mexico, in addition to the “ejidos”, a policy of production and settlement in rural areas, based on the generation of irrigation systems. Thus, from 1926 to 1940, “agricultural cities” are designed in the country, among which is founded, in the southern area of the northern state of Chihuahua, a city named Delicias, whose main objective was the production of vine and cotton. However, by 1960, there was a change in production trends, due to external factors, that was understood and dealt with by the inhabitants, which allowed them to maintain their production process and even increase considerably their activity. Due to this attitude toward hardship, they would call themselves the "victors of the desert". This paper will describe the founding process of this rural settlement, as well as the territory it occupies and its current status.

According to data from the Observatory of Archaeological Cultural Heritage-OPCA, 7% of the declarations of national heritage correspond to the natural category, 1% to declarations made to 'territories', and 23% of the cultural heritage is located or develops in rural contexts; however, at present no declaration of Cultural Landscape has been accomplished in Bolivia, considering that Law 530 of the Bolivian Cultural Patrimony, defines and incorporates this category in the classification of heritage.

On the other hand, at the moment of integrating the notion of cultural landscape in the processes of territorial management and administration, it is necessary to identify which are the factors that can condition these actions. In this sense, the present work will focus on the identification and description of the impact of agrarian reforms in Bolivia in the territorial reconfiguration, being one of the factors that determine the human-nature relationship, through the use of land. The study scenery is the Kallawaya region that administratively includes the municipalities of Curva and Charazani, it is important to mention that the worldview of this culture is recognized as Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity (2003), and in its territory archaeological, architectural elements are preserved and productive - linked to traditional medicine, agriculture and livestock - as part of their cultural heritage, they are integrated into the natural context of the region that is characterized by its geomorphology, climate, and articulation from the different ecosystems that are part of this territory.

 

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