Workshop Format// Formats des Ateliers

Paper in a panel / paper dans un panneau

DOI

https://doi.org/10.7275/3bgb-w871

Organizer/Presenter/author Information // Informations sur l'organisateur / le présentateur / auteurs

Dexell Aita, UNITEC Institute of TechnologyFollow
Diane Menzies, ICOMOS NZFollow

Biographical Information // Informations biographiques

Dexell Aita has a BLA from Unitec, Auckland, New Zealand. He is aiming to be the first Masters in Landscape Architecture graduate for Samoa and to introduce landscape architecture to Samoa. He is currently a Masters’ candidate at Unitec, and was awarded the 2019 Pacific Masters Scholarship. His interest is in heritage and culture’s contribution to rural landscape management and resilience for his homeplace.

Diane Menzies is affiliated to Ngāti Kahungunu. She is a past president (and Honorary Member) of IFLA, past president and Life Member of New Zealand Institute of Landscape Architects, an expert voting member of the ICOMOS IFLA ISC Cultural Landscapes and executive member of ICOMOS NZ. Previously a member of the judiciary, her focus is research. She holds a Dip. Landscape Architecture; MBA, Masters of Business Administration (Mediation); and PhD. in Resource Management. Her ONZM is for services to the environment.

Keywords

Cultural Landscapes, Rural Heritage, Local knowledge, communities

Abstract // Résumé

Apia has repeatedly been hit by floods exacerbated by climate change. Apia is the capital of the small island nation of Samoa, in the Pacific. The floods from three watersheds start high in the steep rural areas through which the streams traverse. The streams become rushing torrents, destroying the subsistence farms, soils, homes, crops and properties upstream. Downstream flooding impacts buildings, businesses and tourism in the small city as well as the ecology of the harbour, through repeated silt deposits.

A flood management project, which binds Fa’a Samoa, (Samoan cultural practices) to technical landscape management practice, can also lead to enhanced tourism opportunities by conserving crops, crafting and sharing the cultural narratives. The stories about the steep lush countryside, plants, people’s customs and deep understanding of their landscapes are for telling as part of traditional practice. The historic home of Robert Louis Stevenson, known locally as Tusitala, (the story teller) in this watershed, is an inspiration for building on his and Samoan legends through traditional narrative. While flood mitigation is the driver for this Masters of Landscape Architecture study, the cultural wisdom obtained through meetings and interviews are also a basis for enhanced cultural tourism. This may include the sales of tapa and other traditional rural products, walkways to villages, hospitality and cultural demonstrations such as weaving, tatau (Samoan tattooing) and cocoa making. In the course of addressing the threat of flooding, and building new knowledge and landscape management ideas, a better economic future based on cultural heritage and tourism may also result.

Bibliographic References // Références Bibliographiques

Amataga Penaia, A. T.-G. (n.d.) Reducing Flood Risk - From Science to Policy: The Samoa Process. Retrieved from Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme: https://www.sprep.org/attachments/VirLib/Samoa/reducing-flood-risk-samoa.pdf

Apia Waterfront Development Project - Waterfront Plan 2017 - 2026. (2016) Retrieved from Ministry of Natural Resource and Environment: https://www.mnre.gov.ws/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Final-Waterfront-Plan_opt.pdf

Environment, M. O. (2013) Enhancing Resilience of Coastal Communities of Samoa to Climate Change - Inception Workshop Report. Retrieved from United Nations Development Programme: https://www.adaptation-undp.org/sites/default/files/downloads/inception_workshop_report_-_samoa_af_11-03-2013_mnre_final.pdf

ENVIRONMENT, M. O. (n.d.) Samoa Flood Management Action Plan 2007 - 2012. Retrieved from Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme: https://www.sprep.org/attachments/VirLib/Samoa/samoa-flood-reduction-action-plan.pdf

IWATA, K. (n.d.) Flood Analysis in the Urban Area of Apia, Samoa Islands Using 2D Numerial Model. Retrieved from School of Engineering Hokkaido University: https://www.eng.hokudai.ac.jp/e3/alumni/files/abstract/m80.pdf

Planning and Urban Management Agency, M. O. (2014). Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment Apia, Samoa. Retrieved from UN-HABITAT FOR A BETTER URBAN FUTURE: http://www.fukuoka.unhabitat.org/projects/samoa/pdf/Samoa_Apia_Samoa_Climate_Change_Vulnerability_Assessments.pdf

Stephen Yeo, S. E.-G. (2017, December). Urban Flood Risk Management in the Pacific: Tracking Progress and Setting Priorities.Retrieved from Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery: https://www.gfdrr.org/sites/default/files/publication/UFCOP_Knowledge%20Notes_December%202017_Final.pdf

Woodruff, A. (2008, February). Samoa Technical Report - Economic Analysis of Flood Reduction Measures for the Lower Vaisigano Catchment Area. Retrieved from Pacific Water: http://www.pacificwater.org/userfiles/file/IWRM/Toolboxes/financing%20IWRM/Samoa.pdf

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Panel 8. Paper 8.3: Address flood threats to protect rural landscape heritage and enhance cultural tourism

Apia has repeatedly been hit by floods exacerbated by climate change. Apia is the capital of the small island nation of Samoa, in the Pacific. The floods from three watersheds start high in the steep rural areas through which the streams traverse. The streams become rushing torrents, destroying the subsistence farms, soils, homes, crops and properties upstream. Downstream flooding impacts buildings, businesses and tourism in the small city as well as the ecology of the harbour, through repeated silt deposits.

A flood management project, which binds Fa’a Samoa, (Samoan cultural practices) to technical landscape management practice, can also lead to enhanced tourism opportunities by conserving crops, crafting and sharing the cultural narratives. The stories about the steep lush countryside, plants, people’s customs and deep understanding of their landscapes are for telling as part of traditional practice. The historic home of Robert Louis Stevenson, known locally as Tusitala, (the story teller) in this watershed, is an inspiration for building on his and Samoan legends through traditional narrative. While flood mitigation is the driver for this Masters of Landscape Architecture study, the cultural wisdom obtained through meetings and interviews are also a basis for enhanced cultural tourism. This may include the sales of tapa and other traditional rural products, walkways to villages, hospitality and cultural demonstrations such as weaving, tatau (Samoan tattooing) and cocoa making. In the course of addressing the threat of flooding, and building new knowledge and landscape management ideas, a better economic future based on cultural heritage and tourism may also result.