Workshop Format// Formats des Ateliers

Abstract

Loading...

Media is loading
 

Organizer/Presenter/author Information // Informations sur l'organisateur / le présentateur / auteurs

Feng Han

Biographical Information // Informations biographiques

Professor Dr. Feng HAN, from department of landscape architecture, college of architecture and urban planning, Tongji University in Shanghai. Her research and practice have been focused on large scale landscape conservation and sustainable development.

She is vice president of ICOMOS-IFLA ISCCL (Asia Pacific Region)and an expert member of WCPA of IUCN. She works for World Heritage nomination evaluation and the world heritage research and training programs for Asia Pacific Region with UNESCO category II center WHITRAP . She was involved in initiative of UNESCO Recommendation on Historic Urban Landscape (HUL) and World Heritage and Sustainable Tourism Programme (WHSTP), leading UNESCO HUL and WHSTP pilot projects in China. She is also an expert member (cultural landscape) of World Heritage Committee of the National Forestry and Grassland Administration of China and the founded the Cultural Landscape Committee in Chinese Society of Landscape Architecture and has served as its chair ever since. Her team has won awards including national first prize as well as international awards.

Keywords

cultural landscapes, China, Chinese cultural landscapes

Abstract // Résumé

The term “cultural landscape” has many different meanings for different people throughout the world. It has been widely circulated since the international recognition of cultural landscapes extended to World Heritage prominence in 1992 with three categories of cultural landscapes of outstanding universal value defined as the “combined works of nature and man”. However, the application of World Heritage Cultural Landscapes (WHCLs) encountered difficulties in China. This presentation reviews the history of nature-related World Heritage conservation in the country, examines the cross-cultural confusion of World Heritage practice from Chinese traditional cultural perspective of culture and nature relationship to address to the international bewilderment about China’s two-decade absence from WHCLs. The presentation also reviews the efforts taken by China to dispel the conceptual confusion, what has been inspired by and contributed to the WHCLs in the recent ten years. Finally, the paper examines what China and WHCLs can mutually benefit from each other based on the common concerns of sustainable development and harmonious human-nature relationship in the future. Four stages of landscape cognition and related conservation in China have been illustrated: 1. Pre-World Heritage: The traditional Chinese Culture View of nature-Being Oneness with Nature; 2. The cross-cultural confusion of World Heritage - the detachment of culture and nature; 3. The rise of cultural landscape- rethinking and reconnecting culture and nature;4. Challenges to settle cultural landscapes in national new protected system.

Français :

Le terme « paysage culturel » a de nombreuses significations différentes pour différentes personnes à travers le monde. Il a été largement diffusé depuis la reconnaissance internationale des paysages culturels étendue au patrimoine mondial en 1992 avec trois catégories de paysages culturels de valeur universelle exceptionnelle définis comme les « œuvres combinées de la nature et de l'homme ». Cependant, l'application des paysages culturels du patrimoine mondial (WHCL) a rencontré des difficultés en Chine. Cette présentation passe en revue l'histoire de la conservation du patrimoine mondial liée à la nature dans le pays, examine la confusion interculturelle de la pratique du patrimoine mondial du point de vue culturel traditionnel chinois de la relation entre la culture et la nature pour répondre à la perplexité internationale au sujet de l'absence de deux décennies de la Chine des WHCL . La présentation passe également en revue les efforts déployés par la Chine pour dissiper la confusion conceptuelle, ce qui a été inspiré et contribué aux WHCL au cours des dix dernières années. Enfin, le document examine ce que la Chine et les WHCL peuvent mutuellement bénéficier l'un de l'autre sur la base des préoccupations communes du développement durable et des relations harmonieuses entre l'homme et la nature à l'avenir. Quatre étapes de la connaissance du paysage et de la conservation connexe en Chine ont été illustrées : 1. Pré-patrimoine mondial : la vision traditionnelle de la culture chinoise sur la nature : être un avec la nature ; 2. La confusion interculturelle du patrimoine mondial - le détachement de la culture et de la nature ; 3. L'essor du paysage culturel - repenser et reconnecter la culture et la nature;4. Défis pour régler les paysages culturels dans un nouveau système national de protection.

Español:

El término "paisaje cultural" tiene muchos significados diferentes para diferentes personas en todo el mundo. Se ha difundido ampliamente desde que el reconocimiento internacional de los paisajes culturales se extendió a la prominencia del Patrimonio Mundial en 1992 con tres categorías de paisajes culturales de valor universal excepcional definidos como las “obras combinadas de la naturaleza y el hombre”. Sin embargo, la aplicación de Paisajes Culturales del Patrimonio Mundial (WHCL) encontró dificultades en China. Esta presentación revisa la historia de la conservación del Patrimonio Mundial relacionada con la naturaleza en el país, examina la confusión intercultural de la práctica del Patrimonio Mundial desde la perspectiva cultural tradicional china de la relación entre la cultura y la naturaleza para abordar el desconcierto internacional sobre la ausencia de China de las WHCL durante dos décadas. . La presentación también revisa los esfuerzos realizados por China para disipar la confusión conceptual, lo que se ha inspirado y contribuido a las WHCL en los últimos diez años. Por último, el documento examina lo que China y las WHCL pueden beneficiarse mutuamente en función de las preocupaciones comunes del desarrollo sostenible y la relación armoniosa entre el ser humano y la naturaleza en el futuro. Se han ilustrado cuatro etapas de la cognición del paisaje y la conservación relacionada en China: 1. Pre-Patrimonio Mundial: la visión tradicional de la cultura china de la naturaleza: ser unidad con la naturaleza; 2. La confusión transcultural del Patrimonio Mundial: el desprendimiento de la cultura y la naturaleza; 3. El surgimiento del paisaje cultural: repensar y reconectar la cultura y la naturaleza ; 4. Desafíos para asentar paisajes culturales en un nuevo sistema nacional protegido.

Bibliographic References // Références Bibliographiques

Berque, A. 1993. ‘Beyond the Modern Landscape’, AA FILES 25 (summer 1993)

Chan, W.T. 1967. Chinese Theory and Practice, with Special Reference to Humanism. In The Chinese Mind: Essentials of Chinese Philosophy and Culture, ed. C. A. Moore, 11-30. Honolulu: East-West Centre Press, University of Hawaii Press.

Feng, Y.L 2004. ‘The Brief History of Chinese Philosophy’, Chinese. Henan China: Henan People's Publish.

Fowler, P.J. 2001. ‘Cultural Landscape: Great Concept, Pity about the Phrase’, in: The cultural landscapes: Planning for sustainable partnership between people and place (London, ICOMOS – UK) pp.64-82.

Fowler, P.J. 2003a. ‘World Heritage cultural landscapes, 1992–2002: a review and prospect’, in Cultural Landscapes: the Challenges of Conservation. World Heritage Papers 7, Paris: UNESCO World Heritage Centre.

Fowler, P.J. 2003b. ‘World Heritage Cultural Landscapes 1992–2002’. World Heritage Papers 6, Paris: UNESCO World Heritage Center.

Han, F. 2005. ‘China’s New Wilderness’. Landscape Australia, 26 (1): pp58–60.

Han, F. 2007. The Chinese View of Nature: Tourism in China’s Scenic and Historic Interest Areas, PhD thesis, Brisbane: Queensland University of Technology. School of Design, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane.

Han, F. 2007. ‘World Heritage Cultural Landscapes and New International Trends’. Chinese Landscape Architcture. Vol.23, Issue 11, pp18-21.

Han, F. 2015ª. ‘The Traditional Chinese View of Nature and Challenges of Urban Development’. in F. Bandarin & R. van Oers, (eds.), Reconnecting the City. The Historic Urban Landscape Approach and the Future of Urban Heritage, Chichester: Wiley Blackwell; pp148-159 .

Han, F. 2015b. ‘Historic Urban Landscape research in China: the Slender West Lake in Yangzhou’. Historic Environment. Vol.27, no 1,2015. pp68-77. Australia.

Han, F. 2016. ‘Landscape Declaration: Connecting Cutlture and Nature’. Speech on the Summit of Landscape Architecture Foundation (LAF) , June 10-11, 2016, the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia.

IUCN. 2013. Study on the application of Criterion VII. Considering superlative natural phenomena and exceptional natural beauty within the World Heritage Convention. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.

Lin, Y.T. 1998. The Importance of Living, reprinted in 2001. Beijing: Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press.

Lin, Y.T. 2000. My Country and My People, reprinted in 2002. Beijing: Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press.

Li, X. L. 2017. ‘Research on the Cultural Landscape Categorization and the Potential WHCLs Values of the National Scenic and Historic Interest Areas’, PhD thesis, Tongji University, Shanghai, China.

Moore, C.A. (ed.) 1967. The Chinese Mind, Honolulu: East–West Centre Press–University of Hawaii Press.

Naess, A. 1986. The Deep Ecology Movement: Some Philosophical Aspects,’ Philosophical Inquiry 8. Reproduced in Light. A and Rolston, H. III, (Eds). Envrionmental Ethics, An Anthology. Blackwell Publishing. 2003.

Obi, K. 1989. Nature and the Attitude towards Nature in Chinese Literature, Shanghai: Shanghai Ancient Books Publishing House.

O'Hare, D. 1997. Tourism and Small Coastal Settlements: A Cultural Landscape Approach for Urban Design. Oxford: Oxford Brooks University.

Rössler, M. 2003. Linking Nature and Culture, World Heritage Cultural Landscapes, in Cecarelli, M. and Rössler, M. (Eds) Cultural Landscapes, the Challenges of Conservation, World Heritage Papers 7 (Paris, UNESCO) pp. 10-15.

Rössler, M. 2006. World Heritage cultural landscapes: A UNESCO flagship programme 1992 – 2006, Landscape Research, 31:4, 333-353

Roe, M. 2008. The European Landscape Convention: a revolution in thinking about ‘cultural landscapes’, Chinese Landscape Architcture. Vol.23, Issue 11, pp10-15.

Sauer, C.O. 1925. ‘The Morphology of Landscape’, University of California Publications in Geography 2.2,19-53, reprinted in J. Leighley (ed.), Land and Life: a selection from the writings of Carl Ortwin Sauer, 1963, Berkeley: University of California Press.

Smith, Julian. 2010. ‘Marrying the old with the new in historic urban landscapes’ in Ron van Oers & Haraguchi, Sachiko, World Heritage Papers 27 Managing Historic Cities; Paris: : UNESCO World Heritage Centre, 45-52.

Scazzosi, L. 2018. Rural Landsccape as Heritage Reasons for and Implications of “Principles on Rural Landscape as Heritage” ICOMOS-IFLA 2017. Built Heritage.

Shan, J.X. 2009. ‘Towards the World of Cultural Landscape Heritage’. Tianjin: Tianjin Press.

Taylor, K. 2007. Cultural Landscape and Asian Values: Negotiating a Transition from an International to an Asian Regional Framework. Chinese Landscape Architcture. Vol.23, Issue 11, pp4-9.

Taylor, K. 2015. ‘Cities as Cultural Landscapes’ in F. Bandarin & R. van Oers, (eds.), Reconnecting the City. The Historic Urban Landscape Approach and the Future of Urban Heritage, Chichester: Wiley Blackwell; 179-202.

van Oers R. 2010. “Managing cities and the historic urban landscape initiative: an introduction”, in Managing Historic Cities, World Heritage Papers 27. UNESCO World Heritage Centre, Paris, France, pp. 7-17.

van Oers. R. 2012. ‘The Concept of Historic Urban Landscape (HUL) and its Relation to Cultural Landscape’. Chinese Landscape Architcture.Vol.28, Issue 5, pp16-18.

Zangheri, L. 2007. ‘Cultural Landscapes and Monuments of Nature’. Chinese Landscape Architcture. Vol.23, Issue 11, pp1-3.

Share

COinS
 

World Heritage Cultural Landscapes: the Old and the New for China

The term “cultural landscape” has many different meanings for different people throughout the world. It has been widely circulated since the international recognition of cultural landscapes extended to World Heritage prominence in 1992 with three categories of cultural landscapes of outstanding universal value defined as the “combined works of nature and man”. However, the application of World Heritage Cultural Landscapes (WHCLs) encountered difficulties in China. This presentation reviews the history of nature-related World Heritage conservation in the country, examines the cross-cultural confusion of World Heritage practice from Chinese traditional cultural perspective of culture and nature relationship to address to the international bewilderment about China’s two-decade absence from WHCLs. The presentation also reviews the efforts taken by China to dispel the conceptual confusion, what has been inspired by and contributed to the WHCLs in the recent ten years. Finally, the paper examines what China and WHCLs can mutually benefit from each other based on the common concerns of sustainable development and harmonious human-nature relationship in the future. Four stages of landscape cognition and related conservation in China have been illustrated: 1. Pre-World Heritage: The traditional Chinese Culture View of nature-Being Oneness with Nature; 2. The cross-cultural confusion of World Heritage - the detachment of culture and nature; 3. The rise of cultural landscape- rethinking and reconnecting culture and nature;4. Challenges to settle cultural landscapes in national new protected system.

Français :

Le terme « paysage culturel » a de nombreuses significations différentes pour différentes personnes à travers le monde. Il a été largement diffusé depuis la reconnaissance internationale des paysages culturels étendue au patrimoine mondial en 1992 avec trois catégories de paysages culturels de valeur universelle exceptionnelle définis comme les « œuvres combinées de la nature et de l'homme ». Cependant, l'application des paysages culturels du patrimoine mondial (WHCL) a rencontré des difficultés en Chine. Cette présentation passe en revue l'histoire de la conservation du patrimoine mondial liée à la nature dans le pays, examine la confusion interculturelle de la pratique du patrimoine mondial du point de vue culturel traditionnel chinois de la relation entre la culture et la nature pour répondre à la perplexité internationale au sujet de l'absence de deux décennies de la Chine des WHCL . La présentation passe également en revue les efforts déployés par la Chine pour dissiper la confusion conceptuelle, ce qui a été inspiré et contribué aux WHCL au cours des dix dernières années. Enfin, le document examine ce que la Chine et les WHCL peuvent mutuellement bénéficier l'un de l'autre sur la base des préoccupations communes du développement durable et des relations harmonieuses entre l'homme et la nature à l'avenir. Quatre étapes de la connaissance du paysage et de la conservation connexe en Chine ont été illustrées : 1. Pré-patrimoine mondial : la vision traditionnelle de la culture chinoise sur la nature : être un avec la nature ; 2. La confusion interculturelle du patrimoine mondial - le détachement de la culture et de la nature ; 3. L'essor du paysage culturel - repenser et reconnecter la culture et la nature;4. Défis pour régler les paysages culturels dans un nouveau système national de protection.

Español:

El término "paisaje cultural" tiene muchos significados diferentes para diferentes personas en todo el mundo. Se ha difundido ampliamente desde que el reconocimiento internacional de los paisajes culturales se extendió a la prominencia del Patrimonio Mundial en 1992 con tres categorías de paisajes culturales de valor universal excepcional definidos como las “obras combinadas de la naturaleza y el hombre”. Sin embargo, la aplicación de Paisajes Culturales del Patrimonio Mundial (WHCL) encontró dificultades en China. Esta presentación revisa la historia de la conservación del Patrimonio Mundial relacionada con la naturaleza en el país, examina la confusión intercultural de la práctica del Patrimonio Mundial desde la perspectiva cultural tradicional china de la relación entre la cultura y la naturaleza para abordar el desconcierto internacional sobre la ausencia de China de las WHCL durante dos décadas. . La presentación también revisa los esfuerzos realizados por China para disipar la confusión conceptual, lo que se ha inspirado y contribuido a las WHCL en los últimos diez años. Por último, el documento examina lo que China y las WHCL pueden beneficiarse mutuamente en función de las preocupaciones comunes del desarrollo sostenible y la relación armoniosa entre el ser humano y la naturaleza en el futuro. Se han ilustrado cuatro etapas de la cognición del paisaje y la conservación relacionada en China: 1. Pre-Patrimonio Mundial: la visión tradicional de la cultura china de la naturaleza: ser unidad con la naturaleza; 2. La confusión transcultural del Patrimonio Mundial: el desprendimiento de la cultura y la naturaleza; 3. El surgimiento del paisaje cultural: repensar y reconectar la cultura y la naturaleza ; 4. Desafíos para asentar paisajes culturales en un nuevo sistema nacional protegido.

 

To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.