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Energy balance affects pulsatile secretion of luteinizing hormone from the adenohypophesis and expression of neurokinin B in the hypothalamus of ovariectomized gilts

The pubertal transition of gonadotropin secretion in pigs is metabolically gated. Kisspeptin (KISS1) and neurokinin B (NKB) are coexpressed in neurons within the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARC) and are thought to play an important role in the integration of nutrition and metabolic state with the reproductive neuroendocrine axis. The hypothesis that circulating concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH) and expression of KISS1 and tachykinin 3(TAC3, encodes NKB) in the ARC of female pigs are reduced with negative energy balance was tested using ovariectomized, prepubertal gilts fed to either gain or lose body weight. Restricted feeding of ovariectomized gilts caused a rapid and sustained metabolic response characterized by reduced concentrations of plasma urea nitrogen, insulin, leptin, and insulin-like growth factor-1 and elevated concentrations of free fatty acids. The secretory pattern of LH shifted from one of low amplitude to one of high amplitude, which caused overall circulating concentrations of LH to be greater in restricted gilts. Nutrient-restricted gilts had greater expression of follicle-stimulating hormone and gonadotropinreleasing hormone receptor, but not LH in the anterior pituitary gland. Expression of KISS1 in the ARC was not affected by dietary treatment, but expression of TAC3 was greater in restricted gilts. These data are consistent with the idea that hypothalamic expression of KISS1 is correlated with the number of LH pulse in pig, and further indicate that amplitude of LH pulses may be regulated by NKB in the gilt.
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