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The Influence of Mindfulness During the Travel Anticipation Phase on Search and Choice Behaviors, Search and Choice Outcomes, and Trip Evaluations

Abstract
Tourists exhibit varying levels of mindfulness during the travel anticipation phase, when they are engaged in vacation planning (Clawson & Knetsch, 1966). Mindfulness is associated with analytic decision making through a heightened sensitivity to one’s environment and openness to new information (Langer & Moldoveanu, 2000). This study considered the influence that mindfulness during the travel anticipation phase has on: search and choice behaviors (planning horizon, size of the choice set, information source variety), search and choice outcomes (planning enjoyment, confidence in destination choice), and trip evaluations (satisfaction, behavioral loyalty, attitudinal loyalty). Additional analysis was conducted for mediating and moderating effects based on how much of the trip was planned in advance, whether the tourist visited a repeat or new destination, and whether the tourist considered the area to be their primary destination. The results of the study confirmed that mindfulness during the anticipation phase influenced the travel experience.
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