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The Complex System of Destination Image: Attack, Failure, and Control

Abstract
Destination image is among the most investigated subjects in tourism literature. Previous studies have predominantly adopted a reductionist approach in investigating components of destination image. Reductionist approach, however, does not provide any knowledge on a complex system behavior (i.e., destination image). By using complex system approach and network science, the current study investigates the structure of Curaçao tourism destination image as a scale-free network of businesses and their related attitudinal constructs from TripAdvisor. Results showed that Curaçao’s destination image is categorized as a complex system with the least controllability. Furthermore, the major hubs of Curaçao Island’s image that are susceptible to deliberate attacks of nearby competitors were identified. Our findings call for a need of more unique hubs in Curaçao image network to consolidate the system in handling deliberate attacks
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