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Anti-Diabetic Potentials of Phenolic Enriched Chilean Potato and Select Herbs of Apiaceae and Lamiaceae Families

The incidence of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases is increasing at a worrisome rate globally. Diabetes mellitus is known to occur due to high blood glucose levels, caused by defects in insulin levels. Adult on-set type II diabetes, which is closely associated with obesity, is reported to be 90-95% of all diabetic cases and linked to diet and lifestyle factors. A large population of the developed and developing countries is now being effected by this epidemic. Natural sources of phenolic antioxidants and inhibitors of digestive enzymes from food sources have potential for low cost dietary management of type II diabetes. Therefore, the main focus of this study was to evaluate, develop and design effective dietary strategies based on a combination of Chilean potatoes and herb synergies for the management of hyperglycemia and hypertension linked to type II diabetes. Antioxidant, antihypertensive and anti-hyperglycemic potentials of Chilean potato (Solanum tuberosum ssp. tuberosum L.), herbs from the Apiaceae (Dill, Ajowan, Fennel, Caraway, Coriander and Anise) and Lamiaceae (Sage and Marjoram) families were evaluated, with a goal to target a new dietary management strategy for early stages of type II diabetes through lowering of hyperglycemia and related complications of hypertension The results indicated a high correlation between total phenolic content and total antioxidant activity in several Chilean potato varieties evaluated, which indicates that certain phenolic compounds may be responsible for high antioxidant activity. Also, certain varieties of Chilean potato had antihypertensive potentials, with ACE inhibition upto 88%. The -glucosidase inhibition relevant for hyperglycemia management for Apiaceae family ranged upto 50% (Dill) for aqueous extracts. A high correlation (r = 0.86) was observed between -glucosidase inhibition and total phenolic content for aqueous extracts of all species investigated in the Apiaceae family. A high rosmarinic acid activity was observed in aqueous extracts of Lamiaceae family, which ranged upto 39.7 mg/g of sample dry weight (DW). This suggests that high phenolic content and associated antioxidant activity found in sage and marjoram is dominated by rosmarinic acid. High enzyme inhibitory activities, reflecting in vitro anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hypertensive potentials indicates that consumption of these food sources in our diet would prove to be beneficial towards our health. Further in vivo studies for type II diabetes-linked functionalities of these natural sources of antioxidants and inhibitors would confirm the human health benefits achieved through dietary intake.
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