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Examining the Risky Decision-Making Process: The Influence of Risk Perceptions and Efficacy Beliefs on Intentions to Engage in Personal Protective Behaviors

Abstract
Tourism scholars have begun to criticize risk perception studies. To address several of their criticisms, this study examined factors that may influence tourists’ intentions to engage in personal protective behaviors (PPBs). The theoretical framework was based on protection motivation theory and the risk-as-feelings hypothesis. Findings associated with the multidimensional nature of risk perceptions supported the risk-as-feelings hypothesis. Response efficacy and self-efficacy were significant, positive predictors of intentions to engage in 15 of the 15 recommended PPBs. In terms of risk perceptions, a distinction was found between the predictors of the 7 PPBs that respondents were most likely to engage in and the 8 PPBs that respondents were least likely to engage in. Perceived severity was a significant, positive predictor of intentions to engage in 6 of the top 7 PPBs. Perceived vulnerability/affective risk perceptions was a significant, positive predictor of intentions to engage in the bottom 8 PPBs.
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