Type of Submission

AHFME Symposium Abstract


Managers’ performance is evaluated on achieving budgetary objectives; therefore, managers do practice tight budgetary control. Previous study (Schmidgall 1998) showed that the tolerance of cost variances was lowered in the mid-1990s over the mid-1980s. This study will look at budgetary controls at clubs in the 21st century and consider how they have changed from the mid-1990s. In accounting literature, previous studies on the budgetary control conducted in the corporate level rather than property level. In the information age, autonomy provides more responsibility and accountability to a greater number of business units for value creation and so the managers for property level or front-line managers will be empowered to make fast decision based on current information (Hope & Fraser, 2000).