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Journal of Sleep Research


We examined the comparability of children's nocturnal sleep estimates using accelerometry data, processed with and without a sleep log. In a secondary analysis, we evaluated factors associated with disagreement between processing approaches. Children (n = 722, age 5–12 years) wore a wrist-based accelerometer for 14 days during Autumn 2020, Spring 2021, and/or Summer 2021. Outcomes included sleep period, duration, wake after sleep onset (WASO), and timing (onset, midpoint, waketime). Parents completed surveys including children's nightly bed/wake time. Data were processed with parent-reported bed/wake time (sleep log), the Heuristic algorithm looking at Distribution of Change in Z-Angle (HDCZA) algorithm (no log), and an 8 p.m.–8 a.m. window (generic log) using the R-package ‘GGIR’ (version 2.6-4). Mean/absolute bias and limits of agreement were calculated and visualised with Bland–Altman plots. Associations between child, home, and survey characteristics and disagreement were examined with tobit regression. Just over half of nights demonstrated no difference in sleep period between sleep log and no log approaches. Among all nights, the sleep log approach produced longer sleep periods (9.3 min; absolute mean bias [AMB] = 28.0 min), shorter duration (1.4 min; AMB = 14.0 min), greater WASO (11.0 min; AMB = 15.4 min), and earlier onset (13.4 min; AMB = 17.4 min), midpoint (8.8 min; AMB = 15.3 min), and waketime (3.9 min; AMB = 14.8 min) than no log. Factors associated with discrepancies included smartphone ownership, bedroom screens, nontraditional parent work schedule, and completion on weekend/summer nights (range = 0.4–10.2 min). The generic log resulted in greater AMB among sleep outcomes. Small mean differences were observed between nights with and without a sleep log. Discrepancies existed on weekends, in summer, and for children with smartphones and screens in the bedroom.



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Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.