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Access Type

Open Access Thesis

Document Type


Degree Program


Degree Type

Master of Arts (M.A.)

Year Degree Awarded


Month Degree Awarded



Most research on employment gender inequality focuses on differences between men and women, reinforcing a binary conception of gender. This study uses the National Transgender Discrimination Survey to evaluate the employment outcomes of nonbinary transgender people (those who identify as a gender other than man or woman). The results of this study suggest that being out as a nonbinary transgender person negatively affects nonbinary transgender people's employment outcomes. Though all transgender people have higher unemployment rates than the general population, outness has different effects on nonbinary transgender people based on sex assigned at birth, with those assigned male at birth tending to be discriminated against in hiring but those assigned female at birth more likely to experience differential treatment once hired. Race also contributes to differential treatment in the workplace. In an additional comparison between all transgender groups, I find that transgender women tend to have worse employment experiences than nonbinary transgender people and transgender men, the latter two tending to have similar outcomes.


First Advisor

Donald Tomaskovic-Devey

Second Advisor

Naomi Gerstel

Fourth Advisor

Joya Misra