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Access Type

Open Access Thesis

Document Type


Degree Program


Degree Type

Master of Science (M.S.)

Year Degree Awarded


Month Degree Awarded



High sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake and poor vitamin D status have both been associated with increased risk of elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP) in previous research. However, these associations have never been investigated in the same study population, leaving the question of a possible interaction uninvestigated. One potential mechanism for an interaction is that SSB intake may increase serum uric acid (UA) and UA may interfere with utilization of vitamin D. This study examined these relationships in a sample of men and women (n=2,875) aged 20-74 using data collected in the 2003-2006 NHANES survey. No statistically significant association was found between SSB intake and risk of elevated SBP (defined as SBP>120mmHg) in whole group analysis. In subgroup analysis by gender, women (n=1,550) showed a 68% (OR: 1.68, 95% CI: 1.12-2.50, p-value 0.011) increased risk of elevated SBP in the highest SSB intake quartile (mean intake of 3.27 servings/day) compared to the lowest (mean intake of 0.03 servings/day) after adjustment for age, race, BMI, alcohol use, physical activity, and smoking, but no association was found in men (n=1,325). A statistically significant association was found between 25(OH)D and SBP, with a 30% decrease in risk of elevated SBP (OR: 0.70, 95% CI: 0.55-0.90, p-value 0.005) for those in the highest serum 25(OH)D group (>75nmol/L) compared to the lowest (<50nmol/L) in the fully adjusted model. However, no association was found between SSB intake and serum UA. Assessing potential effect modification between SSB and vitamin D in their impact on blood pressure using a multiplicative term and stratified analysis did not provided evidence of an interaction effect.


First Advisor

Alayne Ronnenberg

Second Advisor

Lisa Troy

Third Advisor

Zhenhua Liu

Included in

Nutrition Commons