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Access Type

Open Access Thesis

Document Type


Degree Program

Food Science

Degree Type

Master of Science (M.S.)

Year Degree Awarded


Month Degree Awarded



Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is an emerging and sensitive technique in food analysis providing advantages of rapid detection, simple sample preparation and on-site detection capability over GC and LC methods. Most SERS applications focus on detecting trace amount of analyte in liquid as an alternative approach to HPLC. Herein, we invented an innovative SERS-active needle which is composed with an injection needle and a gold-nanoparticles coated fiber inside the injection needle. The gold nanoparticles-coated fiber was fabricated by reducing gold (III) on a chemically etched stainless wire. The SERS needle can be used to insert into the headspace and liquid sample for simultaneous multiphase sample detection, or a soft tissue like a tomato fruit to detect the analyte inside of the tissue with minimum invasion. Using this needle, we can detect as low as 5 ppb of fonofos in the headspace of water and apple juice samples, compared with the dip method, which cannot detect lower than 10 ppb in water and 50 ppb in apple juice. The SERS needle was also applied in real time pesticide translocation study to monitor internalized thiabendazole in tomato fruit after root uptake. The SERS needle detected thiabendazole inside tomato fruits 30 days after the pesticide exposure in a hydroponic planting environment. Moreover, realizing the advantage of detecting volatile components in the headspace of food sample, we applied the SERS needle in a ground beef spoilage study to detect the spoilage biomarkers in the headspace of the raw beef. As a result, the SERS needle detected volatile spoilage compounds produced by bacteria Lactobacillus. Overall, this invention opens a new field of SERS strategy for broad analytical applications.


First Advisor

Lili He