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As the immune system has a significant role in tumor progression, in this paper, we develop a data-driven mathematical model to study the interactions between immune cells and the osteosarcoma microenvironment. Osteosarcoma tumors are divided into three clusters based on their relative abundance of immune cells as estimated from their gene expression profiles. We then analyze the tumor progression and effects of the immune system on cancer growth in each cluster. Cluster 3, which had approximately the same number of naive and M2 macrophages, had the slowest tumor growth, and cluster 2, with the highest population of naive macrophages, had the highest cancer population at the steady states. We also found that the fastest growth of cancer occurred when the anti-tumor immune cells and cytokines, including dendritic cells, helper T cells, cytotoxic cells, and IFN-γ" role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; max-height: none; display: inline; line-height: normal; word-spacing: normal; overflow-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; position: relative;">γ, switched from increasing to decreasing, while the dynamics of regulatory T cells switched from decreasing to increasing. Importantly, the most impactful immune parameters on the number of cancer and total cells were the activation and decay rates of the macrophages and regulatory T cells for all clusters. This work presents the first osteosarcoma progression model, which can be later extended to investigate the effectiveness of various osteosarcoma treatments




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Diagnosis and Treatment for Bone Tumor and Sarcoma




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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.