Phytoremediation potential of Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis: biosorption and toxicity studies of cadmium
Journal or Book Title
This study examines the possibility of using Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis TISTR 8217 to remove low concentrations of cadmium (less than 100 mg/l) from wastewater. The cyanobacteria were exposed to six different cadmium concentrations for 96 h, and the growth rate was determined using an optical density at 560 nm. The inhibiting concentration (IC50) was estimated using probit analysis. The IC50 at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h were 13.15, 16.68, 17.28, and 18.35 mg/l Cd, respectively. Cellular damage was studied under a light microscope and a transmission electron microscope. Swollen cells and fragmented filaments were observed. Cell injury increased with increasing concentrations of cadmium. Ultrastructural changes were observed in the algae exposed to cadmium concentrations both close to IC50 (14.68 mg/l) and at IC50 (18.35 mg/l). The alterations induced by cadmium were disintegration and disorganization of thylakoid membranes, presence of large intrathylakoidal space, increase of polyphosphate bodies, and cell lysis. In addition, the cadmium adsorption by algal cells was studied. Environmental factors were found to have an effect on biosorption. The uptake of cadmium was not affected by the temperature of the solution, but the sorption was pH dependent. The optimum pH for biosorption of algal cells was 7. The cadmium uptake process was rapid, with 78% of metal sorption completed within 5 min. The sorption data fit well to the Langmuir isotherm. The maximum adsorption capacity for S. platensis was 98.04 mg Cd per g biomass.
Rangsayatorn, N; Upatham, ES; Kruatrachue, M; Pokethitiyook, P; and Lanza, GR, "Phytoremediation potential of Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis: biosorption and toxicity studies of cadmium" (2002). ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION. 295.