Pathogens, nutritional deficiency, and climate influences on a declining moose population
Journal or Book Title
Several potential proximate causes may be implicated in a recent (post-1984) decline in moose (Alces alces andersoni) numbers at their southern range periphery in northwest Minnesota, USA. These causes include deleterious effects of infectious pathogens, some of which are associated with white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), negative effects of climate change, increased food competition with deer or moose, legal or illegal hunting, and increased predation by gray wolves (Canis lupus) and black bears (Ursus americanus). Long-standing factors that may have contributed to the moose decline include those typically associated with marginal habitat such as nutritional deficiencies. We examined survival and productivity among radiocollared (n = 152) adult female and juvenile moose in northwest Minnesota during 1995–2000, and assessed cause of death and pathology through carcass necropsy of radiocollared and non-radiocollared animals.
Murray, DL; Cox, EW; Ballard, WB; Whitlaw, HA; Lenarz, MS; Custer, TW; Barnett, T; and Fuller, TK, "Pathogens, nutritional deficiency, and climate influences on a declining moose population" (2006). WILDLIFE MONOGRAPHS. 84.