Journal or Book Title
PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS
We consider the possibility of adding a stage to a dilution refrigerator to provide additional cooling by “filtering out” hot atoms. Three methods are considered: (1) effusion, where holes having diameters larger than a mean-free path allow atoms to pass through easily; (2) particle waveguidelike motion using very narrow channels that greatly restrict the quantum states of the atoms in a channel; (3) wall-limited diffusion through channels, in which the wall scattering is disordered so that local density equilibrium is established in a channel. We assume that channel dimensions are smaller than the mean-free path for atom-atom interactions. The particle waveguide and the wall-limited diffusion methods using channels on order of the de Broglie wavelength give cooling. Recent advances in nanofilters give this method some hope of being practical.
Mullin, WJ and Kalechofsky, N, "Theory of cooling by flow through narrow pores" (2006). PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS. 34.
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