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The chemical structure of donors and acceptors limit the power conversion efficiencies achievable with active layers of binary donor-acceptor mixtures. Here, using quaternary blends, double cascading energy level alignment in bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic active layers are realized, enabling efficient carrier splitting and transport. Numerous avenues to optimize light absorption, carrier transport, and charge-transfer state energy levels are opened by the chemical constitution of the components. Record-breaking PCEs of 18.07% are achieved where, by electronic structure and morphology optimization, simultaneous improvements of the open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current and fill factor occur. The donor and acceptor chemical structures afford control over electronic structure and charge-transfer state energy levels, enabling manipulation of hole-transfer rates, carrier transport, and non-radiative recombination losses.
Ma, Zaifei/0000-0002-3100-1570; Tang, Zheng/0000-0003-0036-2362; ZHU, LEI/0000-0003-3971-0299
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National Natural Science Foundation of ChinaNational Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) [51973110, 21734009, 21905102, 61805138]; Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences [BNLMS201902]; Center of Hydrogen Science, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China; DOE, Office of Science, and Office of Basic Energy SciencesUnited States Department of Energy (DOE); China Postdoctoral Science FoundationChina Postdoctoral Science Foundation [2020M681278]; Natural Science Foundation of ShanghaiNatural Science Foundation of Shanghai [19ZR1401400]; National Key Research and Development Program of China [2017YFA0207700]; US Office of Naval ResearchOffice of Naval Research [N00014-17-1-2244]; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)United States Department of Energy (DOE) [DE-AC36-08GO28308]; Solar Energy Technology Office (SETO), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, U.S. DOEUnited States Department of Energy (DOE)
Zhang, Ming; Zhu, Lei; Zhou, Guanqing; Hao, Tianyu; Qiu, Chaoqun; Zhao, Zhe; Hu, Qin; Larson, Bryon W.; Zhu, Haiming; and Russell, Thomas P., "Single-Layered Organic Photovoltaics With Double Cascading Charge Transport Pathways: 18% Efficiencies" (2021). NATURE COMMUNICATIONS. 1165.