The Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) and the Cape Cod Planning Commission have identified coastal erosion, flooding, and shoreline change as the number one risk affecting the heavily populated 1,068 square kilometers that constitute Cape Cod (CZM, 2013 and Cape Cod Commission 2010). This paper investigates natural and anthropogenic causes for coastal erosion and their relationship with established social and economic systems. Sea level rise, climate change, and other anthropogenic changes increase the rate of coastal erosion. The impacts associated with coastal erosion include habitat loss, property loss, infrastructure damage, and beach loss. These impacts will affect economic, ecological, and social systems in Cape Cod. We explore the relationships between socio-ecological systems in Cape Cod. There are structural and non-structural solutions that will help communities in Cape Cod adapt to challenges posed by coastal erosion. Structural solutions include coastal landscaping, beach nourishment, and soft infrastructure. Non-structural solutions include policy, economic compensation, education, and community involvement. In the future, Cape Cod should search for sustainable solutions to the problems associated with coastal erosion.