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Document Type

Open Access

Degree Program

Electrical & Computer Engineering

Degree Type

Master of Science in Electrical and Computer Engineering (M.S.E.C.E.)

Year Degree Awarded


Month Degree Awarded



variable gain, phased array, complex gain, bi-directional, amplifier, quadrature


This thesis presents the design, layout, and measurements of a bi-directional amplifier with variable vector (in-phase / quadrature) gain control that will be part of an electronically steered phased array system. The electronically steered phased array has many advantages over the conventional mechanically steered antennas including rapid scanning of the beam and adaptively creating nulls in desired locations. The 10-bit bi-directional Vector Variable Gain Amplifier (VVGA) is part of the transmit and receive module of each antenna element where transmit and receive functionality is determined through a simple switch. The VVGA performs amplification of the IF IQ pair by an adjustable complex coefficient. At receive, the VVGA functions as a Vector Variable Gain Current Amplifier (VVGCA) and at transmit, the VVGA functions as a Vector Variable Gain Transadmittance Amplifier (VVGTA). Design procedure, layout entry, schematic and parasitic extracted simulation results, and measurements are presented in this thesis.

First Advisor

Robert W. Jackson