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Year Degree Awarded
For many years a considerable amount of psychological research has been directed to the issues of reward and punishment. Emphasis has usually been placed on reinforcement . or reward and punishment as incentives for movement toward or away from a goal. For the most part, the focus of this research has been external. That is, given some reinforcer A, what are the effects on external behavior B? How the subject experiences the reinforcer internally (i.e. his arousal level) has been generally ignored in this research.