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Year Degree Awarded
Interpersonal relations, Personal space
Proxemics, the study of human use of space, had been used by anthropologists in studying cultural patterns and interactions. Hall (1959, 1966) has investigated the specific norms of interpersonal distance and physical contact of several diverse cultures and found them to be quite different between cultures but quite stable within cultures or at least within subcultures. Other investigators have found stable differences in the personal spaced the boundary within which anxiety is produced if another enters^, between the sexes, between schizophrenics and normals (Horowitz, Duff & Stratton, 1964) and between violent and nonviolent prisoners (Kinzel, 1969). The effect of different spatial arrangements on the interaction on a hospital ward (Sommer & Ross, 1958), on table conversations (Sommer, 1959, 1965), in group therapy (Winick & Holt, 1961) and in the counseling situation (Haase, 1970) has been investigated.