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Year Degree Awarded
Despite the frequent references to commitment in social psychological literature, little seems to have been done in the analysis of its various components. Kiesler and Sakamura (1966) defined commitment as "a binding of the individual to behavioral acts," this binding being inversely related to the amount of inducement offered to an individual for performing an overt act. Moreover, commitment is said to be increased when one increases: the number of acts performed by S (although this relationship may not be linear); the degree of irrevocability of the act; the importance of the act to S; expectancy of positive outcomes associated with the act; and volition of S, manipulated either by increasing the degree of perceived choice or decreasing the external pressure to perform the act. Some consequences of commitment have included increased resistance to attacks on committed beliefs as in the above study, harsh treatment of the misjudged other if committed to a negative evaluation (Walster and Walster, et. al., 1966), and attitude change in the direction of the dissonance arousing but committing act in forcedcompliance situations (e.g., Brehm, 1960). However, since studies in general tend to use commitment as an explanation of results, rather than viewing results as explanations of commitment, this construct retains its dispositional qualities leaving one with a vague understanding of its underlying characteristics.