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Master of Science (M.S.)
Year Degree Awarded
Month Degree Awarded
ODD, parenting, family stress, behavior problems, externalizing, family
The present study examined the interactions between early child behavior, early parenting, and early family stress (parent psychopathology, socioeconomic status, and stressful life events) in predicting later Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) symptoms. Participants were 223 three-year-old children and their parents who participated in a four-year longitudinal study. It was predicted that there would be a stronger relationship between children’s early behavior characteristics and later ODD in the presence of less parental overreactivity/negative affect, more paternal warmth, and less family stress and a stronger relationship between early family stress and later ODD in the presence of less parental overreactivity/negative affect and more paternal warmth. Although early child behavior, early parenting, and early family stress were predictive of later ODD, they did not significantly interact in the predicted direction. In fact, contrary to prediction, only one interaction proved to be significant and it was in the unexpected direction: the relationship between early child behavior and later ODD was stronger among parents who displayed more warmth with their three-year-old children.
Elizabeth A. Harvey