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Access Type

Campus Access

Document Type


Degree Program


Degree Type

Master of Science (M.S.)

Year Degree Awarded


Month Degree Awarded



Emotion regulation, group identification, group-based emotions


The studies originated from research on group-based emotions and examine emotions and emotion regulation in the context of group-based provocations. In addition, the studies examined the ways in which people identify with their group and how that affects responses to group provocations. I hypothesized that the process of ruminating in contrast to reappraising would increase anger and negative action intentions and attitudes towards the provoking outgroup. I hypothesized that individual differences in ingroup glorification and trait emotion regulation would moderate the relationship between a group provocation and affective and attitudinal responses such that high glorification and high rumination would lead to more anger and more negative attitudes and behavioral intentions. The participants were University of Massachusetts-Amherst undergraduates in the psychology participant pool who identified as United States citizens. Study 1 was an experimental three-level design (rumination, reappraisal control). Study 2 was an experimental three-level design (provocation, no provocation, control). Study 1 demonstrated that response to provocation was affected by the emotion regulation manipulation and level of ingroup identification. Study 2 revealed that individual differences in chronic emotion regulation style and identification interacted to predict responses to the provocation. Implications of the research are discussed.


First Advisor

Brian Lickel

Second Advisor

Ronnie Janoff-Bulman