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Access Type

Campus Access

Document Type


Degree Program

Food Science

Degree Type

Master of Science (M.S.)

Year Degree Awarded


Month Degree Awarded



Type 2 diabetes, phenolic bioactives, apple, blueberry, lactic acid bacteria, probiotics


Type 2 diabetes is a worldwide and costly disease that requires complex cellular metabolic breakdown for its development. The onset of this disease is indicated by an abnormal elevated blood glucose level (hyperglycemia) and coexistence with hypertension. Apple and blueberry are the two popular fruits in the U.S. that are high in bioactive phenolic compounds. The objectives of this thesis were to investigate the synergistic health benefits of apple cider and blueberry juice for potential management of early stages of type 2 diabetes using in vitro enzyme assay models and enhance their synergistic effects through fermentation using probiotic strains of lactic acid bacteria. Apple cider and whole blueberry juice were combined at 5 different ratios. Synergistic interaction of the phenolic bioactives between the two juice sources was observed in all assays. For maintenance of high α-glucosidase, α-amylase and ACE inhibition activities, a proportion of 80% apple cider and 20% whole blueberry juice was selected as the optimum combination reflecting maximum health benefits to potentially manage hyperglycemia and hypertension associated with type 2 diabetes. The 80/20 apple cider and blueberry juice combination was fermented at 24 and 48 h using Lactobacillus helveticus R0052 and Bifidobacterium longum isolate. High inhibition of α-glucosidase, α-amylase and ACE enzymes was observed in apple cider/blueberry juice combination. Strong antimicrobial activity against H. pylori was exerted by L. helveticus- and B. longum-fermented sample at 48 h. A possible mode of action through the synergy between lactic acid and proline oxidation pathway was suggested.


First Advisor

Kalidas Shetty