Collection of TTRA 2020 Research Papers and Abstracts - 51st Annual Travel and Tourism Research Association International Conference

Due to the global pandemic of COVID-19, the 2020 TTRA conference was not able to be held as planned in June. As a research association, making such knowledge accessible is key to who we are. As such, TTRA wishes to acknowledge and disseminate the important research by publishing a collection of TTRA 2020 Research Papers and Abstracts.

As your Academic Co-Chairs of the 51st TTRA Annual Conference, we had different plans, visions, and expectations for the conference however, COVID-19 happened. The conference theme aligns with how we will move forward - exploring the issues critical to the future of travel research: 20/20 Vision: Looking Forward, Looking Back.

The "Setting the Research Agenda" sessions organized at the Melbourne TTRA 2019 conference helped shape several priority areas of the 2020 TTRA Conference, and this collection includes many submissions that address the guiding sub-themes that emerged from Melbourne last year:

  • Climate Change and the Regenerative Economy
    • Transitions for climate change and tourism
  • Business, Employment, and Supply
    • Workforce development policies for the future
    • Unpacking issues of representation, diversity and inclusion in the toursim industry
  • Measurement of 'Success' in Tourism
    • Taking a holistic perspective to KPIs, beyond simply numerical counts
  • People-Centered Tourism
    • First-Nations-Control of identity, culture, heritage, land, governance and future
    • Community Tourism-Resilience, participation, self-reliance social justice
    • Inclusivity and tourism
  • Tourism, Happiness, Health and Wellness
    • Technology and Well-being

While we know that this collection cannot replace the enjoyment of reconnecting, learning, and sharing with each other in person, our hope is that the research presented in this collection will help in fostering an equitable landscape for post COVID-19 travel and tourism. Please visit the COVID-19 Travel and Tourism Research Resources.

Dr. Cody Morris Paris and Dr. Stefanie Benjamin
Academic Co-Chairs of the 51st TTRA Annual Conference


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A Clustering Approach to Understanding the Impact of Multi-Phase Social Media Engagement at Festivals

Danielle Barbe, University of Florida
Kelly MacKay
Christine Van Winkle, University of Manitoba
Elizabeth Halpenny, University of Alberta

A Little Blue Bird Told Me: Sentiment Change on Orphanage Tourism

So Young Park, Pennsylvania State University - Main Campus
Bing Pan, Pennsylvania State University - Main Campus
Ashley Schroeder, Pennsylvania State University - Main Campus
Andrew J. Mowen, Pennsylvania State University - Main Campus
Sarah A. Font, Pennsylvania State University - Main Campus

A Longitudinal Panel Study on Tourist Emotional Experience: Exploring Emotion Generative and Regulatory Processes

Nan M. Chen, School of Hotel & Tourism Management, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University
Cathy H. C. Hsu, School of Hotel & Tourism Management, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University

A new perspective on the soft skills hospitality management students need to be successful in the hospitality industry: Meeting the gold standard and the Soft Skills Index

Jessica Jefferis
Horace Hutchinson,

A reflection on using mind maps as a tool for grounded theory analysis

Ulrike E. Kachel PhD, Charles Darwin University, Australia
Gayle Jennings PhD, Imagine CGI, Australia

A Tale of Two Restaurants: The role of the Chef in the search for authenticity.

Bill Gregorash

A Tale of Two Villages: Debordering and Rebordering in the Bordered Community Scenic Area

Xingyu Huang, Temple University
Honggang Xu, Sun Yat-sen University
Xiang (Robert) Li, Temple University

Achieving active ageing through value and value co-creation in leisure and tourism

Daisy Fan Dr, Bournemouth University
Dimitrios Buhalis Prof, Bournemouth University
Evangelia Fragkaki Miss, Bournemouth University
Yun-Ru Tsai Mr, National Chiayi University

Are luxury and sustainability compatible? A Canadian social entrepreneurship case

Frederic Dimanche Ph.D., Ryerson University
Maria Della Lucia Ph.D., University of Trento

Assessing tourism’s well-being effects on community residents

Kreg Lindberg
Ian Munanura, Oregon State University
Mark Needham, Oregon State University

Beyond Attitudes Change: Agritourism as a Setting to Explore Tourism Experiences’ Impact on Intended Behaviors

Sara Brune

Can pilgrimage tourism impede climate change? A dynamic capabilities approach

Dagnachew Senbeto, The Open University of Hong Kong

Capturing Lessons for Sustainable Tourism Planning and Research: A Systematic Literature Review

Cathy Rubinos, Universidad del Pacifico - Peru
Isabel Guerrero, Oregon State University
Naara Cancino, Universidad del Pacifico - Peru
Bruno Chereque, Universidad del Pacifico - Peru

Climate Change and the Response of Food Truck Industry: A Study on Vancouver Visitors’ Destination

Hiran Roy, Fairleigh Dickinson University, Vancouver
Chehra Aboukinane, Acsenda School of Management, Vancouver, Canada
Subhajit Das, Presidency University, Kolkata – 700073, West Bengal, India

Comparative Study on Disaster Prevention Consciousness and Evacuation Intention of Inbound Tourists and Japanese

Sunkyung Choi

Comparing supply and demand perspectives of destination competitiveness

Margarida Abreu Novais, Griffith University - Australia
Lisa Ruhanen, University of Queensland
Charles Arcodia, Griffith University - Australia

Crowding Perceptions and Satisfaction in National Parks: When will we learn?

Norma P. Nickerson, University of Montana - Missoula
Jeremy Sage, University of Montana, Missoula
Jake Jorgenson, RRC Associates

Developing and Validating a Scale of Perceived Host Territoriality

Yuan Wang, East China Normal University
Xiang (Robert) Li, Temple University

Development of Beach Quality Assessment Parameters Based on Tourist Reviews

Myunghwa Kang, Hospitality, Restaurant, and Tourism Management, University of Nebraska - Lincoln
Hanyoung Go, Hospitality, Restaurant, and Tourism Management, University of Nebraska - Lincoln

DMO 2.0: Exploring residents’ national identification relationship to destination advocacy through social media

Michael Lever, University of Guelph
Statia Elliot, University of Guelph

Effective Principles of Culinary Heritage Tourism Interpretation

Sin Ting Cindy Chiu, Hong Kong Polytechnic University
Wei-Jue Huang, Hong Kong Polytechnic University

Effectiveness of accessibility information on hotels’ websites: a quasi-experimental design

Weixuan Wang, Indiana University - Bloomington
Haoai Zhao, Indiana University - Bloomington
Shu Tian Cole, Indiana University - Bloomington
Pengcheng Xun, Indiana University - Bloomington

Examining the Relationship between Practicing Savoring Strategies on Vacation-Taking and Quality of Life

Nanxi Yan, University of Alberta
Elizabeth Halpenny, University of Alberta

Exploring Destination Loyalty: Application of Social Media Analytics in a Nature-based Tourism Setting

Farshid Mirzaalian, University of Alberta
Elizabeth Halpenny, University of Alberta Faculty of Kinesiology, Sport, and Recreation

Exploring environmentally counterproductive behaviours

Antje Martins, The University of Queensland, Australia
Richard N.S. Robinson, The University of Queensland, Australia
David J. Solnet, The University of Queensland, Australia

Exploring Ethnic Minority Workers’ Perceptions of Employee Well-Being in the Tourism and Hospitality Industry: An Exploratory Study

Bingjie Liu-Lastres, Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis
Han Wen, University of North Texas

Exploring Event Satisfaction, Surfing Experiences and Destination Image at the World Championships of Surf Kayaking in Peru

Lindsay E. Usher, Old Dominion University
Nuno F. Ribeiro, RMIT University

Financial Implications of Customer Engagement Behavior on Business Profitability

Karen Pei-Sze Tan, Temple University
Suiwen (Sharon) Zou Dr., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Xiang (Robert) Li Dr., Temple University

Growing the North Carolina Oyster Trail (NCOT): A mixed method approach

Whitney Knollenberg, North Carolina State University
Mitch Carstens, East Carolina University
Jane Harrison, North Carolina Sea Grant
Emily Yeager, East Carolina University
Carla Barbieri, North Carolina State University

Guiding principles for good governance of the smart destination

Ulrike Gretzel, University of Southern California
Tazim B. Jamal Dr., Texas A&M University

How Job Crafting is Shaping the Future of Hospitality Industry: through the Lens of Industry 4.0

AYUSHI YADAV, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee

How to gain accommodation managers’ support for accommodation tax? Exploring the mediating role of perceived fairness

Takahiro Ikeji
Yuichi Yamada Dr

Immigration and labor in tourism: The case of Canada

Frederic Dimanche, Ryerson University
Calum MacDonald, Tourism HR Canada

Improving the Potential of Tourist Destinations with Consideration of Tourists and Residents: From the Perspective of Structural Analysis of Tourism Resources in Kanazawa, Japan

Keisuke Izumisawa
Reiji Chubachi

Initial Steps Towards Understanding Advocacy Planning Efforts in the Tourism Industry

Whitney Knollenberg, North Carolina State University
Ashley Schroeder, Department of Recreation, Park and Tourism Management, The Pennsylvania State University
Hailey Post, North Carolina State University

Innovative entrepreneurship in the hospitality industry

Jeou Shyan Horng, JinWen University of Science & Technology
Chih-Hsing Liu, National Kaohsiung University of Science and Technology
Sheng Fang Chou,
Da Chian Hu, JinWen University of Science & Technology

Integrating Tourism into Land Management Planning for Community Resilience, Hawai`i Island

Angela Faanunu, University of Hawaii at Hilo
Gabrielle Sham

Investigating Restorative Benefits of Wellness Tourism: A Study of Forest Therapy Trip and the Role of Forest Therapy Guide

CHIA-PIN YU, National Taiwan University
Heng-Ting Chen, National Taiwan University
Pei-Hua Chao, National Taiwan University

Investigating the Relationship Between Tourism and Residents’ Senses of Pride in an Emergent, Post-War Destination

Jada W. Lindblom, Arizona State University
Christine Vogt, Arizona State University
Kathleen Andereck, Arizona State University

Is accessibility enough? Exploring how inclusive tourism promotional marketing is for people with disabilities in Southeastern United States

Stefanie Benjamin, University of Tennessee, Knoxville
Ethan Bottone, University of Tennessee, Knoxville
MIranda Lee, University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Is this about Feeling? The Interplay of Emotional Wellbeing, Solidarity and Residents’ Attitude.

Sujie Wang, Shandong University
Adiyukh Berbekova, University of Massachusetts Amherst
Muzaffer Uysal, University of Massachusetts Amherst

Living in a Black and White world: The value of reflexivity in social equity research

Alana Dillette, San Diego State University
Stefanie Benjamin, University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Location-based Data Analysis of Visitor Structure for Recreational Area Management

Chieh-Ping Wu, Taiwan Tourism Bureau
Shao-Hsun Wang, Taiwan Tourism Bureau
Hsuan Chiu, Vpon Inc.
Pei-Xun Wang, Vpon Inc.
Chia-Hu Chang, Vpon Inc.
Pei-Chi Sun, Vpon Inc.
Wen-Qian Chen, Vpon Inc.
Hsiao-Wei Sung, Vpon Inc.
Hsiao-Hui Chen, Vpon Inc.

Mega-sport events’ sport participation legacy & sustainability: a prospective longitudinal case study of an adapted Alpine Sports Tourism Program

Simon Darcy Prof, University of Technology, Sydney
Tracey Dickson Prof, University of Canberra, Australia

Millennials’ Use of Technology in Nature-based Settings: Understanding Value Discrepancy with an Integrative Approach to Technology Acceptance and Attention Restoration Theory

Connor Clark, Arizona State University
Gyan Nyaupane, Arizona State University
Andrea Lichterman, Arizona State University

Mixing Community Capitals and Creative Placemaking for Craft-Beverage Tourism Development

Claudia Gil Arroyo, North Carolina State University
Whitney Knollenberg, North Carolina State University
Carla Barbieri, North Carolina State University

Multi-Destination Comparison Analysis of Resident Behaviors towards Tourists

Serene Tse Ms, School of Hotel & Tourism Management, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University
Vincent Wing Sun Tung Dr, School of Hotel & Tourism Management, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University

Relationship between CO2 emissions, tourism receipt, energy use and international trade in Pakistan

Tafazal Kumail Dr, Guangxi University of Finance and Economics
Wajahat Ali Dr, Sarhad University of Science and Information Technology, Peshawar
Farah Sadiq Ms, Guangxi University
Asad Aburumman Dr, University of Sharjah

Research on the Influence of Emoji Communication on the Perception of Destination Image: The Case of Finland

Jun Shao, Beijing Forestry University
Shan Yi, Group
Ye (Sandy) Shen, University of Guelph
Ulrike Gretzel, University of Southern California
Marion Joppe, University of Guelph

Residents' perceptions on touristifying Cantonese Opera in Hong Kong

Louisa Yee Sum Lee, The Open University of Hong Kong
Zoie Hiu Yan Tang, The Open University of Hong Kong

Resisting Domination and “Cultural Imperialism” Through Direct Indigenous Participation in Historical Reenactments

Jeff Wahl
Tazim Jamal, Dept. of Recreation, Park and Tourism Sciences Texas A&M University

Revealing the Structure of the Canadian Tourism Market: an Analysis based on Geographic Information Systems (GIS)

Shuyue Huang, Mount Saint Vincent University

Rural Tourism and Home Sharing: History, Policy and Strategic Planning for Community Resilience

Yu-Hua XU, University of Florida
Lori Pennington-Gray, University of Florida

Seeking to Extend Well-being Benefits of Leisure Travel: A Character-strength-based Exploration

Ye Zhang, Florida Atlantic University
Jie Gao, San Jose State University
Peter Ricci, Florida Atlantic University
Anil Bilgihan, Florida Atlantic University

Slow roll: A longitudinal analysis of sustainable energy implementation

ingrid E. Schneider, University of Minnesota - Twin Cities
Madeleine Orr, SUNY Cortland
Xinyi Qian, University of Minnesota - Twin Cities
Michelle Heyn, University of Minnesota-Twin Cities
Patrick Simmons, Explore MN Tourism

Socio-political Unrest and Tourism Crisis in Hong Kong: A Critical Incident Approach

Emmanuel Gamor, Hong Kong Polytechnic University
Hakimeh Nasiri, Hong Kong Polytechnic University
Markus Schuckert PhD, Hong Kong Polytechnic University

Spiritual and Religious Outcomes of Leisure Travel and Tourism: A Framework for Synthesizing Empirical Research

Paul Heintzman, University of Ottawa

Sports Tourism: An Exploration of Motivations, Experiences and Personal Reflections at the FIFA World Cup 2018 In Russia

Jatin Thakur

The corporate environmental responsibility paradox: a multi-national investigation of business traveller attitudes and their sustainable travel behaviour.

Phil R. Walsh, Ryerson University
Rachel Dodds, Ryerson University
Julianna priskin, University of Applied Science Lucerne

The Effects of Macroeconomic Factors on the Supply of Airbnb: Theory and Empirical Evidence

Tarik Dogru, Florida State University
Yingsha Zhang, University of Waikato
Courtney Suess, Texas A&M University
Makarand Mody, Boston University
Umit Bulut, Kirsehir Ahi Evran University
Ercan Sirakaya-Turk, University of South Carolina

The Persistent Gender Gap in Canadian Hotel Operations

Sonia Abassah-Oppong, Executive Residency by Best Western
Mark Robert Holmes, School of Hospitality, Food and Tourism Management, Gordon S. Lang School of Business and Economics, University of Guelph

The Power of Instagram for Destination Marketing: Understanding the Followers and their Perceptions of Travel-Accounts on Instagram

Danielle Barbe, University of Florida
Larissa Neuburger, University of Florida

The Role of Authenticity, Source Credibility, and Involvement in the formation of Destination Image on Social Media Platforms

Dr. Arifur Rahman, University of Dhaka
Naila Sharmin, University of Dhaka
Mily Akhter, University of Dhaka

Tourism and community resilience

Kreg Lindberg
Magnar Forbord, Ruralis
Rita Sivertsvik, Ruralis

Tourism Experience and National Identity of China’s Middle Class: An Analysis of Their Domestic Travels and International Travels to Japan

Abigail Qian Zhou

Tourism growth through Corporate Entrepreneurship and Franchising: a bibliometric study

Simone Bianco
Florian Zach, Virginia Tech
Manisha Singal, Virginia Tech

Understanding Demographics and Experience of Tourists in Yellowstone National Park through Social Media

Yun Liang, The Pennsylvania State University
Junjun Yin, The Pennsylvania State University
Bing Pan, The Pennsylvania State University
Guangqing Chi, The Pennsylvania State University
Clio Andris, Georgia Institute of Technology
Zach Miller, Utah State University
Jack Jorgenson, RRC Associates
Norma Nickerson, The University Of Montana

Understanding the Impacts of Festivals on Resident Attendees: A Case Study on the Vancouver Queer Film Festival

Jarrett R. Bachman, Fairleigh Dickinson University - Vancouver Campus
Feng Feng, Fairleigh Dickinson University - Vancouver Campus
John Hull, Thompson Rivers University

Utilizing the Change of Tourist Information Search Channels as a Key to Guide Strategies for Destination Marketing Promotion – Taking Macao’s Tourists as an example

Shanshan Qi, Macau institute for Tourism Studies (IFTM)
Don Chi Wai Wu, Macau institute for Tourism Studies (IFTM) and Department of Management Sciences, City University of Hong Kong (CityU)
Kong (Simon) Lei, Macau institute for Tourism Studies (IFTM)

Validating the Use of Social Media Data to Measure Visitation to Public Lands in Utah

Hongchao Zhang, Utah State University
Jordan W. Smith Ph.D., Utah State University

Visitor Attitudes Toward Climate Mitigation Strategies: Influence of Travel Distance and Experience Use History

Shuangyu Xu, University of Missouri, Columbia
Sonja A. Wilhelm-Stanis, University of Missouri
Hongchao Zhang, Utah State University
Lisa Groshong, National Association of Insurance Commissioners
Mark Morgan, University of Missouri

You call it “sharing”, I call it “bragging”: Conceptualizing travel bragging from a dual perspective

Hongbo Liu, University of Surrey
Xiang (Robert) Li, Temple University