Major syntheses of Hudson Valley prehistory have ignored archaeological sites located and tested by Dr. Mary Butler as part of the Hudson Valley Archaeological Survey (1939-1940). Since many of the sites were multicomponent and unstratified, investigators believed they could provide little new information on culture history in the region. A careful evaluation of one of the 45 sites investigated by the Survey, the Goat Island Rockshelter, in Dutchess County, New York, demonstrates the potential contribution to knowledge offered by previously excavated collections. A detailed materials analysis (including a prehistoric ceramic attribute analysis), and the original field notes and drawings, support the hypothesis of the presence of the Early-Middle Woodland Bushkill complex in the Hudson Valley. The ceramic remains pose other interesting challenges to current understanding of Hudson Valley prehistory.