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Spaced-antenna wind estimation using an X-band active phased-array weather radar
Over the past few decades, several single radar methods have been developed to probe the kinematic structure of storms. All these methods trade angular-resolution to retrieve the wind-field. To date, the spaced-antenna method has been employed for profiling the ionosphere and the precipitation free lower atmosphere. This work focuses on applying the spaced-antenna method on an X-band active phased-array radar for high resolution horizontal wind-field retrieval from precipitation echoes.^ The ability to segment the array face into multiple displaced apertures allows for flexible spaced-antenna implementations. The methodology employed herein comprises of Monte-Carlo simulations to optimize the spaced-antenna system design and analysis of real data collected with the designed phased-array system. The contribution that underpins this dissertation is the demonstration of qualitative agreement between spaced-antenna and Doppler beam swinging retrievals based on real data.^ First, simulations of backscattered electric fields at the antenna array elements are validated using theoretical expressions. Based on the simulations, the degrees of freedom in the spaced-antenna system design are optimized for retrieval of mean baseline wind. We show that the designed X-band spaced-antenna system has lower retrieval uncertainty than the existing S-band spaced-antenna implementation on the NWRT. This is because of the flexibility to synthesize small overlapping apertures and the ability to obtain statistically independent samples at a faster rate at X-band. We then demonstrate a technique to make relative phase-center displacement measurements based on simulations and real data from the phased-array spaced-antenna system. This simple method uses statistics of precipitation echoes and apriori beamwidth measurements to make field repeatable phase-center displacement measurements.^ Finally, we test the hypothesis that wind-field curvature effects are common to both the spaced-antenna and Doppler beam swinging methods. Based on a close-range winter storm data set, we find that the spaced-antenna and fine-resolution Doppler beam swinging retrievals are in qualitative agreement. The correlation between the spaced-antenna and fine-resolution Doppler beam swinging retrievals was 0.57. The lowered correlation coefficient was, in part, due to the high standard deviation of the DBS retrievals. At high wind-speeds, the spaced-antenna retrievals significantly departed from variational retrievals of mean baseline wind.^
Electromagnetics|Atmospheric sciences|Remote sensing
Venkatesh, Vijay, "Spaced-antenna wind estimation using an X-band active phased-array weather radar" (2013). Doctoral Dissertations Available from Proquest. AAI3589208.