The mitochondrial toxin rotenone exerts cytotoxicity via overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane. We investigated the effects of rotenone (12.5, 25, 50, 100 nmol/L) on mitochondrial biogenesis and the potential roles of ROS production in SH-SY5Y cells. Mitochondrial biogenesis was assessed by counting the number of mitochondria, determining protein expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator α (PGC1-α) and its regulator, SIRT1, and oxygen consumption. ROS production and levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione(GSSG) were also determined. Compared with controls, rotenone (12.5 nmol/L) significantly increased the quantity of mitochondria and amount of oxygen consumption, whereas rotenone at >12.5 nmol/L decreased the quantity of mitochondria and amount of oxygen consumption. GSH contents and GSH/GSSG were also significantly enhanced by rotenone at 12.5 nmol/L and decreased by rotenone at >12.5 nmol/L. Except for ROS production and SIRT1 protein expression, all concentration–response relationships showed a typical inverted-U shape. ROS production was continually increased in cells treated with rotenone. These data indicate that low concentrations of rotenone can induce mitohormesis, which may be attributed to ROS production.
Yuyun, Xiong; Jinjun, Qian; Minfang, Xu; Jing, Qiu; Juan, Xia; Rui, Ma; Li, Zhu; and Jing, Gao
"EFFECTS OF LOW CONCENTRATIONS OF ROTENONE UPON MITOHORMESIS IN SH-SY5Y CELLS,"
Dose-Response: An International Journal:
2, Article 12.
Available at: http://scholarworks.umass.edu/dose_response/vol11/iss2/12