Publication Date



The development of this manual was supported through a contract from the World Bank-administered Bank-Netherlands Partnership Program (BNPP). World Bank Contract # 7145279. This manual is the result of a collaborative ongoing effort between Gambian educators and the Learning Initiatives for Rural Education (LIRE) team both in The Gambia and at the Center for International Education (CIE), University of Massachusetts, Amherst (UMass). LIRE was funded by An accolade of gratitude goes out to the following writers/members of the technical committee and persons who made useful contributions to this manual who helped bring it to a final stage.


This training guide—and its companion; The Gambia’s Handbook on Multi-Grade Teaching—went through a process of development that was uniquely participatory and highly interactive. It was developed under the leadership of project LIRE and the Technical Working Group in The Gambia (TWG). This manual was further enriched with inputs and contributions from education officials and teachers involved in the LIRE multi-grade program. TWG members were drawn from key stakeholders from within and outside the Ministry of Education. Members are seasoned curriculum developers and planners with years of experience in curriculum and materials development.