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The Center for International Education (CIE) is a training, research and service program within the School of Education at the University of Massachusetts. Formed in 1968, CIE offers graduate level professional training and research opportunities in the areas of international development education, nonformal education and global education.

The Center Maintains its own publications department printing works of CIE members. All CIE publications are available at cost to organizations and individuals with an interest in international education and development. Publications from the Center are intended to provide valuable information for field-based projects and their personnel, as well as explore specific issues in the field of development education, research and training.


This note describes a step-by-step process for involving learners in the development, production and evaluation of various types of photoliterature including fotonovellas. Technical information on photographic techniques is presented to assist educators in the participatory process.

In this manual, we have given suggestions on how to combine participation and the development of photo-literature. First, we consider the rationales for learner-produced materials. In the second section we discuss the participatory process and focus on the relationship of the facilitator (probably you) to the participants and how the facilitator can enhance or inhibit the process. The third section is designed to answer the technical questions a facilitator may have regarding how to put a fotonovela together. The technical aspects are about the same for all types of photo-literature. Participation is difficult to discuss and understand in a vacuum, and, therefore, we have integrated "participatory process boxes" throughout the technical section to give specific suggestions on how to increase participation in the context of specific technical problems. In the fourth section we discuss some considerations in summative evaluation, following in the last section with an examination of some of the "pros" and "cons" of various photo-literature formats.




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