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A 33GHz and 95GHz cloud profiling radar system (CPRS): Preliminary estimates of particle size in precipitation and clouds
The Microwave Remote Sensing Laboratory (MIRSL) st the University of Massachusetts has developed a unique single antenna, dual-frequency polarimetric Cloud Profiling Radar System (CPRS). This project was funded by the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program, and was intended to help fill the void of ground-based remote sensors capable of characterizing cloud microphysical properties. CPRS is unique in that it can simultaneously measure the complex power backscattered from clouds at 33 GHz and 95 GHz through the same aperture. Both the 33 GHz and 95 GHz channels can transmit pulse-to-pulse selectable vertical or horizontal polarization, and simultaneously record both the copolarized and crosspolarized backscatter. CPRS Doppler, polarimetric and dual-wavelength reflectivity measurements combined with in situ cloud measurements should lead to the development of empirical models that can more accurately classify cloud-particle phase and habit, and make better quantitative estimates of particle size distribution parameters. This dissertation describes the CPRS hardware, and presents colocated 33 GHz and 95 GHz measurements that illustrate the use of dual-frequency measurements to estimate particle size when Mie scattering, is observed in backscatter from rain and ice-phase clouds. Polarimetric measurements are presented as a means of discriminating cloud phase (ice-water) and estimating crystal shape in cirrus clouds. Polarimetric and dual-wavelength observations of insects are also presented with a brief discussion of their impact on the interpretation of precipitation and liquid cloud measurements. In precipitation, Diermendjian's equations for Mie backscatter (1) and the Marshal-Palmer drop-size distribution are used to develop models relating differences in the reflectivity and mean velocity at 33 GHz and 95 GHz to the microphysical parameters of rain. These models are then used to estimate mean droplet size from CPRS measurements of drizzle, which were collected in July, 1993 during the system's first field test in Lincoln, NE. The dissertation also presents cirrus cloud and other measurements collected during the DOE-sponsored Remote Cloud Sensing Intensive Operations Period (RCS-IOP) experiment in April, 1994. Zenith-pointing cirrus measurements show small differences in 33 GHz and 95 GHz reflectivity, as models have predicted (2). Depolarization was also detected in a few cases when ice crystals precipitated from the base of a cloud. On May 29, 1994 CPRS observed a convective storm that produced a cirrus anvil cloud and hail. These storms are one 'engine' producing cirrus clouds and are currently a topic of intensive research by climatologists. Both zenith-pointing and range-height data formats are presented. Measurements of depolarization above the melting/layer are compared to in situ observations of particle size and shape. The RCS-IOP experiment also provided a first opportunity to verify our calibration with aircraft in situ measurements, and to compare our cloud measurements to those collected by other remote sensors. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)
Sekelsky, Stephen Michael, "A 33GHz and 95GHz cloud profiling radar system (CPRS): Preliminary estimates of particle size in precipitation and clouds" (1995). Doctoral Dissertations Available from Proquest. AAI9541152.