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Author ORCID Identifier



Open Access Dissertation

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Degree Program

Animal Biotechnology & Biomedical Sciences

Year Degree Awarded


Month Degree Awarded


First Advisor

John M. Clark

Second Advisor

D. Joseph Jerry

Third Advisor

Jeffery S. Ebdon

Subject Categories

Agriculture | Environmental Health | Toxicology


There is concern among industry regulators, turfgrass managers, and the general public over human exposure to pesticides following their application to turfgrass. The residential aspect of turfgrass applications raises concerns about exposure to infants and children, as well as adults. To accurately determine the exposure of golfers to turfgrass pesticides, it is necessary to understand their transfer and absorption dynamics, as well as the routes of golfer exposure. Previous research has demonstrated that exposure to some turfgrass pesticides is at a level that would concern USEPA risk assessors using the USEPA Hazard Quotient (HQ) criteria (1). This current research used environmental monitoring (dislodgeable foliar residue), dosimetry (residues on cotton suits, gloves and personal air samplers) and biomonitoring (quantifying pesticide parent compound or metabolites in urine) to determine absorbed dose as well as transfer and absorption dynamics, resulting in an estimation of risk to the golfers. It was determined that the hands (48.6-70.6%) and lower legs (20-46.2%) received the majority of the dose. Airborne residues of these current use pesticides contributed very little to the overall dose. Reduced risk pesticides were compared to conventional pesticides, and found to reduce golfer hazard. Exposure to all the pesticides studied was well below any level of concern as determined by the USEPA using the HQ and Margin of Exposure (MOE) methods. HQs > 1.0 or MOEs < 100-300 give rise to a level of concern about possibly unsafe exposures. Acute HQs determined by dosimetry ranged from 0.0000008 (carfentrazone-ethyl) to 0.0027 (cyfluthrin), while acute MOEs ranged from 125,000,000 (carfentrazone-ethyl) to 47,170 (cyfluthrin), indicating limited concern from these exposures[J1] .