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Author ORCID Identifier



Open Access Dissertation

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Degree Program

Electrical and Computer Engineering

Year Degree Awarded


Month Degree Awarded


First Advisor

Csaba Andras Moritz

Subject Categories

Digital Circuits | Electronic Devices and Semiconductor Manufacturing | Nanotechnology Fabrication | VLSI and Circuits, Embedded and Hardware Systems


2D CMOS integrated circuit (IC) technology scaling faces severe challenges that result from device scaling limitations, interconnect bottleneck that dominates power and performance, etc. 3D ICs with die-die and layer-layer stacking using Through Silicon Vias (TSVs) and Monolithic Inter-layer Vias (MIVs) have been explored in recent years to generate circuits with considerable interconnect saving for continuing technology scaling. However, these 3D IC technologies still rely on conventional 2D CMOS’s device, circuit and interconnect mindset showing only incremental benefits while adding new challenges reliability issues, robustness of power delivery network design and short-channel effects as technology node scaling. Skybridge-3D-CMOS (S3DC) is a fine-grained 3D IC fabric that uses vertically-stacked gates and 3D interconnections composed on vertical nanowires to yield orders of magnitude benefits over 2D ICs. This 3D fabric fully uses the vertical dimension instead of relying on a multi-layered 2D mindset. Its core fabric aspects including device, circuit-style, interconnect and heat-extraction components are co-architected considering the major challenges in 3D IC technology. In S3DC, the 3D interconnections provide greater routing capacity in both vertical and horizontal directions compared to conventional 3D ICs, which eliminates the routability issue in conventional 3D IC technology while enabling ultra-high density design and significant benefits over 2D. Also, the improved vertical routing capacity in S3DC is beneficial for achieving robust and high-density power delivery network (PDN) design while conventional 3D IC has design issues in PDN design due to limited routing resource in vertical direction. Additionally, the 3D gate-all-around transistor incorporating with 3D interconnect in S3DC enables significant SRAM design benefits and good tolerance of process variation compared to conventional 3D IC technology as well as 2D CMOS. The transistor-level (TR-L) monolithic 3D IC (M3D) is the state-of-the-art monolithic 3D technology which shows better benefits than other M3D approaches as well as the TSV-based 3D IC approach. The S3DC is evaluated in large-scale benchmark circuits with comparison to TR-L M3D as well as 2D CMOS. Skybridge yields up to 3x lower power against 2D with no routing congestion in benchmark circuits while TR-L M3D only has up-to 22% power saving with severe routing congestions in the design. The PDN design in S3DC shows