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Author ORCID Identifier


Campus-Only Access for Five (5) Years

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Degree Program


Year Degree Awarded


Month Degree Awarded


First Advisor

Michael P. Krezmien

Second Advisor

Michelle Hosp

Third Advisor

Mark Hamin

Subject Categories

Special Education and Teaching


Inclusion of students with disabilities is an area of interest for the Saudi Arabian Ministry of Education. Educational policy plays an essential key to provide meaningful inclusion provisions to all types of children for academic and social success, but it is not clear if the policies adequately support inclusive education in Saudi Arabia. Much of that research conducted in the United States has demonstrated that teacher’ perceptions and knowledge of inclusion and students with disabilities are the most significant influential factors for implementing effective inclusion practices in inclusive settings. To date, there has been limited research conducted on teacher knowledge and perceptions of inclusion in Saudi Arabia. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate Saudi teachers’ perceptions and knowledge about inclusion and students with special needs. A total of 299 general and special education teachers participated in this study. Findings revealed that there was a relatively low level of knowledge about inclusion and students with disabilities among the Saudi Arabian educators. Findings also revealed differences in perceptions by disability category. Saudi Arabian teachers had the most negative perceptions of students with severe intellectual disabilities and the most positive perceptions of students with learning Disabilities. Qualitative analysis revealed that participants had minimal knowledge about evidence-based strategies to teach students with intellectual disabilities in a general education classroom. Implication for practice and research were discussed in this study.