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Author ORCID Identifier


Campus-Only Access for Five (5) Years

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Degree Program


Year Degree Awarded


Month Degree Awarded


First Advisor

Florence Sullivan

Second Advisor

Elizabeth H McEneaney

Third Advisor

Nathaniel Whitaker

Subject Categories

Curriculum and Instruction


The purpose of this study is to understand how students are using online homework help aids, examine how students perceive their own learning through the use of help aids when completing homework assignments, and to determine how the use of these online help aids are affecting learning, particularly in the long term. Online homework platforms are being used in classrooms at an increasing rate. It is important to understand how the use of help aids, some falling into the category of Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS), are affecting student learning outcomes. This study used mixed methods research with exam and homework data, as well as conducting interviews for a small sample of subjects. Sixty-nine students enrolled in an applied calculus course in two unique semesters participated in this study. This study found that students are making use of the help aids when they are unable to answer a homework question, in some cases, before attempting the problem without help. Students will use the to the solutions to the questions directly in the homework but will turn to an abundance of outside resources as well. The results show that using the solutions when needed increased the likelihood of later being able to correctly solve a problem, when the problem directly linked to the homework. However, in the case of a more challenging or theoretical problem, the solutions were a non-factor. These findings help to better understand the most effective way to deliver help aids and number of attempts offered to students on homework assignments. Additionally, this can be used to enhance the current help aids offered to be the most beneficial for learning.