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Author ORCID Identifier


Open Access Dissertation

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Degree Program


Year Degree Awarded


Month Degree Awarded


First Advisor

Sharon Rallis

Subject Categories

Educational Leadership


This dissertation involved a mixed method study on discipline practices in a single urban school district. This was a novel investigation that engaged stakeholders (administrators, teachers, school professionals, and students) to view, analyze, and interpret discipline data from their district and to explore the underlying causes of discipline outcomes. I found disproportionate discipline of students of color and disproportionate discipline for minor offenses. Stakeholders views resulted in a model in which social ecological systems drove the discipline system and undergirded the disparate and discriminatory practices. Interpretations of the findings are discussed.