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Author ORCID Identifier



Open Access Dissertation

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Degree Program

Electrical and Computer Engineering

Year Degree Awarded


Month Degree Awarded


First Advisor

C. Andras Moritz

Second Advisor

Israel Koren

Third Advisor

C. Mani Krishna

Fourth Advisor

Charles Weems

Subject Categories

Computer and Systems Architecture | Digital Circuits | Electrical and Electronics | Electronic Devices and Semiconductor Manufacturing | Hardware Systems | Nanotechnology Fabrication | VLSI and Circuits, Embedded and Hardware Systems


Continuous scaling of CMOS has been the major catalyst in miniaturization of integrated circuits (ICs) and crucial for global socio-economic progress. However, continuing the traditional way of scaling to sub-20nm technologies is proving to be very difficult as MOSFETs are reaching their fundamental performance limits [1] and interconnection bottleneck is dominating IC operational power and performance [2]. Migrating to 3-D, as a way to advance scaling, has been elusive due to inherent customization and manufacturing requirements in CMOS architecture that are incompatible with 3-D organization. Partial attempts with die-die [3] and layer-layer [4] stacking have their own limitations [5]. We propose a new 3-D IC fabric technology, Skybridge [6], which offers paradigm shift in technology scaling as well as design. We co-architect Skybridge’s core aspects, from device to circuit style, connectivity, thermal management, and manufacturing pathway in a 3-D fabric-centric manner, building on a uniform 3-D template. Our extensive bottom-up simulations, accounting for detailed material system structures, manufacturing process, device, and circuit parasitics, carried through for several designs including a designed microprocessor, reveal a 30-60x density, 3.5x performance/watt benefits, and 10x reduction in interconnect lengths vs. scaled 16-nm CMOS [6]. Fabric-level heat extraction features are found to be effective in managing IC thermal profiles in 3-D. This 3-D integrated fabric proposal overcomes the current impasse of CMOS in a manner that can be immediately adopted, and offers unique solution to continue technology scaling in the 21st century.