Publication Date

August 2022


The majority of the former noble estates still retain traces of manorial farming and landscape formation in the historic landscape. The research draws attention to the justification, importance, deficiencies and potentials for the protection, restoration or interpretation of former manorial estates on a landscape scale. It is based on the general experience that heritage protection, restoration measures and reconstruction programs in Hungary are mostly limited to the centers of the estates, such as castles, manor houses and their surrounding historic gardens. The manorial imprints outside the estate centers (farms, deer-parks, tree alleys along historical routes, etc.) are gradually dilapidating, and traces of the historic land use and the former estate structure are hardly recognizable, which makes this research particularly timely. The influence of manorial estates on the landscape and their typical landscape imprints are presented through the example of a small, but exemplary designed and managed noble estate in Hungary, known as the Sándor-Metternich estates in the surroundings of Bajna village. Furthermore, we carried out best practice focused investigation on international examples of landscape-scale conservation of noble estates, and we formulated generally applicable principles for the landscape-scale conservation of heritage values of manorial ensembles. In the case of the former estate of Bajna we provided specific proposals for the protection of the discovered values at a landscape level.



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