Off-campus UMass Amherst users: To download campus access dissertations, please use the following link to log into our proxy server with your UMass Amherst user name and password.
Non-UMass Amherst users: Please talk to your librarian about requesting this dissertation through interlibrary loan.
Dissertations that have an embargo placed on them will not be available to anyone until the embargo expires.
Open Access Thesis
Master of Science (M.S.)
Year Degree Awarded
Month Degree Awarded
Recent studies have shown that postmenopausal follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) levels may be predictive of future cardiovascular disease risk. However, little is known about postmenopausal FSH levels, including the level of variation between women and factors associated with this variation. We assessed the relationship of multiple reproductive factors with FSH levels among 588 postmenopausal women in the Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study. Participants were aged 53 to 73 years and not using hormone therapy at baseline (1998-2001). Reproductive factors were assessed at baseline, along with FSH levels. After adjustment for sex steroids, adiposity measures, plasma lipids, blood pressure, and behavioral factors, we observed that women with 3 or more births and an age at first birth of 25 or later had mean FSH levels that were significantly 7.6 IU/L lower than those of women with a 1 to 2 births and an age at first birth of 24 or less. Number of miscarriages was inversely correlated with FSH levels. Women reporting a 7 or more years of OC use and 4-6 or 7 or more years of HT use each had significantly higher mean FSH levels than women who had never used OCs or HT. In summary, multiple reproductive factors were associated with postmenopausal FSH levels, independent of estradiol, adiposity, and other factors. These findings warrant replication and further exploration of potential underlying mechanism.
Costa, Rebecca, "Reproductive Factors and Postmenopausal FSH Levels" (2020). Masters Theses. 896.