Journal Title

National Center for Digital Government Working Paper Series

Publication Date



In general terms, e-government can be defined as the use of information and communication technologies in government settings. However, it is neither a homogeneous nor a static phenomenon. In recent years, empirical studies have identified two interesting dynamics in e-government evolution. First, e-government has evolved from its initial presence on the Internet to a more transactional and integrated approach. Second, at the aggregate level and as a general trend, national governments have started adding technological sophistication and have been followed by state and local governments. This paper attempts to explain these two dynamics in the evolution of e-government as a result of pressures from the administrative apparatus of government and from the expectations of stakeholders involved in the policy process such as citizens, politicians, and businesses. Both forces promote change in the system of rules governing the design, implementation, and use of egovernment initiatives. Some policy implications are provided at the end of the paper.