Off-campus UMass Amherst users: To download campus access dissertations, please use the following link to log into our proxy server with your UMass Amherst user name and password.

Non-UMass Amherst users: Please talk to your librarian about requesting this dissertation through interlibrary loan.

Dissertations that have an embargo placed on them will not be available to anyone until the embargo expires.

Date of Award


Access Type

Campus Access

Document type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Degree Program

School Psychology

First Advisor

Amanda M. Marcotte

Second Advisor

John M. Hintze

Third Advisor

Christopher E. Overtree

Subject Categories

Educational Psychology | Social Psychology


Instructional time is a precious commodity within the school day. Research has shown (Gettinger & Ball, 2008; Hollywood, Salisbury, Rainforth & Palombaro, 1994) that students are only academically engaged for a fraction of time that is protected for instruction. In order to increase academic achievement, we must increase and protect instructional time. This study used a multiple baseline design across teachers to examine teacher behavior and student engagement. Teachers and students were systematically observed in the classroom. In the first phase, the data from these observations were provided graphically to teachers, thus serving as performance feedback. Performance feedback has been demonstrated as an effective means of increasing treatment integrity and facilitating teacher behavior change (Noell et al., 2005). During the second phase of the study, consultation meetings included a review of the data, collaborative brainstorming of strategies for increasing instructional time and goal setting. It was hypothesized that sharing performance feedback would lead to increased levels of observed instructional time. Results show inconsistent effects for increasing instructional time across participants.