Thumbnail Image

Assessing multi slot versus single slot pool-type fishways suitability for potamodromous cyprinids: An experimental approach using numerical modelling and fish

Developing new fishway designs that provide suitable hydrodynamic conditions for multiple native freshwater fish species is paramount to mitigate the negative effects of anthropogenic barriers in rivers. This poses an increased challenge in Mediterranean regions, where water availability is limited and issue of conflicting demands. Vertical slot fishways (VSF) are considered one of the best types of technical fishways for potamodromous fish species. However, they generally require a greater amount of water to operate relatively to other type of facilities. The present study used 3D numerical modelling to compare the hydrodynamics and assess the hydraulic suitability for multiple fish species, of a widely used VSF and of two multi slot fishway (MSF) configurations. The MSF configuration requires a lower discharge to operate (> 20% less discharge) than the VSF, while keeping similar flow depths. With the reduction in discharge, the velocity, turbulent kinetic energy and Reynolds shear stress values for MSF are also much lower than the values for VSF (c. 20 – 40% less). Hence, besides requiring smaller discharges than similar VSF design, the MSF seems to be less selective for fish species, particularly smaller-sized individuals, and individuals with weaker swimming capacities. Passage performance of the Iberian barbel, Luciobarbus bocagei (Steindachner, 1864) was subsequently assessed when negotiating a VSF and a MSF in an indoor full scale experimental model. Results showed that the Iberian barbel performed a significantly higher number of movements in the MSF when compared to the VSF. On the other hand, no differences were found in the entrance time, entry efficiency and overall fish performance between configurations. This study shows that numerical modelling complemented with laboratory fish experiments can be an important tool to develop cost-effective fishways.