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Physical characteristics and intragravel survival of chum salmon in developed and natural groundwater channels in Washington

Abstract
Biological and physical evaluation of five groundwater-fed side channels (three artificially developed, two natural) on the East Fork Satsop River showed that recruitment of chum salmon spawners (Oncorhynchus keta) was positively correlated with streamflow discharge of channels. Straying was an important factor affecting initial colonization and seasonal densities of chum salmon spawners in the Satsop groundwater channels. Egg-to-fry survival ranged from 21 to 55%, substantially higher than the 6-31% range reported in other coastal streams. Correction of poor spawning conditions in a natural channel (Maple Glen) may more than double the egg-to-fry survival there. Female chum salmon spawner densities ranged from 0.07 to 0.24 female/m2, which was below optimum (0.5 female/m2) for groundwater channels. It is postulated that increased adult escapements into the Satsop system would provide a fivefold increase in fry production per square meter without diminishing egg-to-fry survival rates in all channels, except Maple Glen. Total dissolved gas ranged from 100 to 104% saturation, although no detrimental effects were noted in fry of the Satsop channels.
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article
Date
1991
Publisher
American Fisheries Society
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